TABLE 2

Descriptions of Sample According to Developmental Risk (N = 2010), Unadjusted and Adjusted for Covariates

Unadjusted for CovariatesAdjusted for Covariates
Developmental Risk (n = 278), %Odds Ratio (95% CI)POdds Ratio (95% CI)P
Category of FI
    FI181.48 (1.11–1.97).0071.76 (1.26–2.46).001
    Food security131.001.00
Site of data collection
    Baltimore161.00.0011.00.0003
    Boston130.79 (0.56–1.11)0.93 (0.62–1.40)
    Little Rock161.01 (0.72–1.42)0.95 (0.65–1.40)
    Minneapolis70.41 (0.26–0.66)0.44 (0.23–0.81)
    Philadelphia211.40 (0.83–2.36)1.42 (0.79–2.55)
Child variables
    Age
        4–12 mo71.00<.0011.00<.0001
        13–24 mo162.48 (1.78–3.47)2.43 (1.70–3.48)
        25–36 mo233.96 (2.78–5.64)4.22 (2.87–6.21)
    Gender
        Female101.00<.0011.00<.001
        Male171.75 (1.35–2.28)1.69 (1.27–2.53)
    Birth weight
        Low birth weight (<2500 g)221.97 (1.44–2.71)<.0011.81 (1.26–2.59).001
        Birth weight of >2500 g131.001.00
    Weight-for-age z score
        >2 SD below mean302.98 (1.98–4.47)<.0012.66 (1.68–4.24).0002
        Within normal range131.001.00
        >2 SD above mean161.30 (0.80–2.11)1.25 (0.74–2.11)
    Breastfeeding status
        Breastfed131.00.221.00.949
        Not breastfed151.18 (0.92–1.52)1.01 (0.75–1.37)
    Health insurance
        Public131.00.401.00.600
        None191.54 (0.79–3.02)1.35 (0.65–2.80)
        Private151.12 (0.77–1.63)1.17 (0.74–1.85)
    Previous hospitalizations
        Any222.39 (1.83–3.12)<.00011.80 (1.35–2.40)<.0001
        None111.001.00
Caregiver variables
    Age
        <21 y120.87 (0.59–1.27).461.02 (0.66–1.56).936
        ≥21 y141.001.00
    Race/ethnicity
        Asian150.97 (0.21–4.47).41NANA
        Black140.85 (0.62–1.17)
        Hispanic120.71 (0.47–1.07)
        White161.00
        Native American251.77 (0.47–6.74)
    Country of birth
        United States151.00.0091.00.763
        Other100.66 (0.48–0.90)0.93 (0.60–1.46)
    Marital status
        Married141.00.601.00.304
        Not married141.00 (0.77–1.32)0.83 (0.59–1.18)
    Employment status
        Employed121.00.021.00.010
        Not employed161.37 (1.06–1.77)1.48 (1.10–1.98)
    Education
        Some high school141.03 (0.75–1.41).761.07 (0.76–1.53).867
        High school graduate131.001.00
        College graduate151.12 (0.83–1.51)1.09 (0.77–1.53)
    Maternal depressive symptoms
        Yes191.93 (1.50–2.50)<.00011.70 (1.27–2.28).0004
        No111.001.00
  • NA indicates not applicable; CI, confidence interval.