TABLE 3

Odds of Children Being in a Higher Weight Category for the Combined Mother and Father Parenting Models

Parenting Model (n = 3040 Children)Population Value According to Child BMI StatusCrudeAdjustedb
Not Overweight (n = 2297)Overweight (n = 414)Obese (n = 126)OR (95% CI)aPOR (95% CI)aP
Parenting dimensions, median (IQR)
    Mothers' warmth4.5 (4.2–4.8)4.5 (4.2–4.8)4.5 (4.2–4.8)1.02 (0.80–1.29).900.95 (0.75–1.22).71
    Mothers' control4.2 (3.6–4.6)4.0 (3.6–4.6)4.0 (3.4–4.4)0.85 (0.73–0.98).031.00 (0.85–1.19).98
    Mothers' irritability2.0 (1.8–2.5)2.0 (1.8–2.5)2.3 (1.8–2.5)0.98 (0.83–1.15).780.87 (0.73–1.04).13
    Fathers' warmth4.2 (3.8–4.5)4.0 (3.7–4.5)4.1 (3.7–4.3)0.90 (0.74–1.07).221.00 (0.82–1.21).97
    Fathers' control4.0 (3.6–4.6)4.0 (3.6–4.4)3.8 (3.2–4.2)0.72 (0.62–0.82)<.0010.75 (0.65–0.86)c<.001
    Fathers' irritability2.3 (1.8–2.8)2.3 (1.8–2.8)2.3 (2.0–2.8)1.06 (0.89–1.27).541.06 (0.88–1.28).51
Parenting style, % (95% CI)
    Mothers' style.73.92
        Authoritative35.1 (33.5–36.9)35.6 (31.8–39.3)33.3 (27.5–39.1)ReferenceReference
        Authoritarian25.8 (24.2–27.4)23.6 (20.4–26.8)21.8 (16.7–27.0)0.94 (0.75–1.19)0.97 (0.76–1.23)
        Permissive19.5 (18.0–20.9)20.3 (17.1–23.6)22.7 (17.2–28.3)1.12 (0.84–1.50)0.92 (0.68–1.24)
        Disengaged19.6 (18.2–21.0)20.6 (17.2–23.9)22.1 (16.5–27.8)1.04 (0.78–1.39)0.91 (0.68–1.23)
    Fathers' style.001.002
        Authoritative41.5 (39.5–43.5)36.7 (32.5–40.9)24.2 (17.3–31.1)ReferenceReference
        Authoritarian17.5 (15.9–19.1)16.2 (12.7–19.7)16.2 (10.1–22.2)1.16 (0.88–1.53)1.11 (0.84–1.46)
        Permissive23.1 (21.4–24.7)25.2 (21.0–29.4)40.6 (32.7–48.4)1.65 (1.27–2.13)1.59 (1.24–2.04)c
        Disengaged17.9 (16.2–19.7)21.9 (17.9–25.9)19.1 (12.6–25.6)1.46 (1.09–1.94)1.35 (1.01–1.80)
  • — indicates not applicable.

  • a Crude and adjusted ORs represent the estimated relative increase in the odds of the child being in a higher BMI category according to the status on the predictor variable.

  • b Each covariate is adjusted for all of the others in each of the 2 separate models, as well as the following: child's gender, whether or not child speaks a language other than English at home, parental education, parental weight status, SEIFA disadvantage index (population weighted quintiles), and number of child's siblings. In addition, covariates in the parenting style model are adjusted for irritability.

  • c Data are a violation of the proportional odds assumption for this covariate.