Comparison of Putative Risk Factors Studied in the ELVS and Those Recommended for Study by the USPSTF

Female gender (yes/no)Male gender
Twin birth (yes/no)Perinatal factors
Preterm birth (<36/≥36 wk)Perinatal factors
Birth weight, kgPerinatal factors
Birth order (first to fifth or more)Birth order
Not used as highly correlated with birth orderFamily size
Non-English-speaking background (yes/no)Minority status
SES (SEIFA disadvantage score in population quintiles)SES
Family history speech/language difficulties (yes/no)Family history of speech/language difficulties
Maternal mental health problem (yes/no)NA
Maternal vocabulary scoreNA
Maternal education level (≤12 y reference)Parents' education
Maternal age at birth of childOlder parents or young mother at birth
NAChildhood illnesses
  • NA indicates not applicable.