TABLE 1.

Effects of Youth Access Interventions on Merchant Compliance and Youth 30-Day and Regular Smoking Prevalence

ReferenceInterventionControlStudy TypeN (Commu- nities)Compliance TestsMerchant ComplianceSmoking Survey30-Day Smoking Prevalence*(%)Regular Smoking Prevalence (%)
Test SubjectsTime to FU (Months)Intervention (%)Control (%)I-CAgeTime to FU (Months)n (BL/FU) (I)n (BL/FU) (C)InterventionControlI-CInterventionControlI-C
Maxi- mum**BLFUFU-BLBLFUFU-BLBLFUFU-BLBLFUFU-BLBLFUFU-BLBLFUFU-BL
Altman, 199911§Community intervention with community and retailer education (no enforcement)YCo213- to 17-year-old boys and girls34100251007536612550Grades 7,929–31393/741393/7411620416226−2
Forster, 199813Comprehensive community intervention, enactment of laws, variety of enforcement strategiesYCS7- to 15-year-old girls36976397345991321Grades 8,9,10363007/31353007/313522253203010−71113211177−5
Rigotti, 19979Retailer education and enforcement (warnings and fines)YCS316-year-old girls248235824728451730Grades 9–12243556/38003556/380023253303003111331716−0.43
DiFranza, 199212§Enforcement (fines)NCS110- to 16-year-old girls and boys11–19846712- to 17-year-olds22500/6632619−7
862786604821265770
5314533918202693
766376133234212131
982198763619−171510−4
922092723329−511165
82508232Grade 94055/4741#2922−7104−7
Cummings, 200115EnforcementNCS1215- to 17-year-old247721775626381210154
764776293137612175
74237451212878113
712571462618−8107−3
9340935325261129−2
812581562827−1119−1
Staff, 199816§Retailer education and community awareness (no enforcement)YCSNR12- to 17-year-olds73818/34382338/266020211222211
Baggott, 199814Enforcement (fines) active enforcementYCS1≤13 years old110010014- to 15-year-olds1117/68107/953329−319223−7
Jason,  199110 (including fines, licensing, possession fines)NCS112- to 13-  year-olds5–1910030  98  68165−11
  • CS indicates cross-sectional study; Co, prospective cohort study; BL, baseline; FU, follow-up; I, intervention; C, control; NR, not reported in the article.

  • * 30 day smoking includes weekly smoking and self reported “smokers” as well as 30 day smoking.

  • Regular smoking includes daily smoking, frequent smoking (≥20/past 30 days) and self reported “regular smokers.”

  • I-C = (FU-BL)intervention − (FU-BL)control.

  • § Averaged prevalence data from different grades and gender.

  • Excluded youth ≥18 years old from prevalence data.

  • Sample sizes were estimated from total sample sizes assuming equal proportions in intervention and control and in BL and FU.

  • # For all 12 communities combined.

  • ** Maximum compliance reached in the during the study.