TABLE 1

Characteristics of Study Sample

CharacteristicCleaning Group (N = 179), n (%)Noncleaning Group (N = 171), n (%)
Male gender72 (40)67 (39)
Age, y
    2–581 (45)76 (44)
    6–1270 (39)59 (35)
    13–1828 (16)36 (21)
Collection time
    8–12 am173 (98)164 (98)
    12–8 am4 (2)4 (2)
Circumcised
    Yes22 (31)27 (40)
    No50 (69)40 (60)
Recent antibiotic use
    Yes25 (14)30 (18)
    No154 (86)141 (82)
Renal problem
    Yes17 (9)12 (7)
    No162 (91)159 (93)