TABLE 3.

Characteristics of the CPR Event and the Relationship to 24-Hour Survival

Potential Prognostic FactorsTotal Number of Patients (n [%])Survivors/Total in Each Category (n [%])Relative Risk of Death at 24 Hours95% CIP
Precipitating cause of CPR
    Respiratory failure
        Yes79 (61)37/79 (47)0.600.48–0.76<.001
        No6/50 (12)
    Shock
        Yes37 (29)3/37 (8)1.631.33–1.99<.001
        No40/92 (44)
    Presence of pulse at the onset of CPR
        Yes22/43 (51)0.580.41–0.82<.001
        No17/86 (20)
Initial cardiac rhythm
    Bradycardia43 (33)22/43 (51)1.00
    Asystole71 (55)18/71 (25)2.121.30–3.46<.01
    Pulseless electrical activity12 (9)2/12 (17)3.220.88–11.78.05
    Ventricular fibrillation1 (1)0/1
    Unknown2 (2)1/2 (50)
    Tracheal intubation during CPR
        Yes20/57 (35)0.950.74–1.22.85
        No23/72 (32)
Medications during CPR
    Epinephrine (number of doses)
        022 (17)15/22 (68)1.00
        120 (16)12/20 (60)1.140.72–1.80.82
        226 (20)6/26 (23)2.951.39–6.30.01
        3 or more61 (47)10/61 (16)4.162.21–7.80<.001
    Atropine
        Yes9/26 (35)0.980.58–1.90.94
        No34/103 (33)
    Bicarbonate
        Yes36 (8)6/36 (17)1.381.11–1.73.02
        No37/93 (40)
Duration of the CPR
    ≤15 min52 (40)36/52 (69)1.00
    16–30 min33 (26)4/33 (12)5.712.24–14.57<.001
    >30 min44 (34)3/44 (7)10.153.36–30.73<.001