TABLE 1.

Cross-Sectional Association Between Parental Disapproval of Smoking and Other Independent Variables at Baseline

Parental Disapproval of Smoking(Row Percents)P Value χ2
Neither DisapprovesOne DisapprovesBoth Disapprove
Characteristic
N116 (17.5)110 (16.6)436 (65.9)
Grade mean (standard deviation)8.9 (2.5)8.9 (2.4)7.5 (2.5)*
Parent smoking
 Neither40 (10.8)45 (12.7)219 (76.5).01
 One41 (22.0)42 (19.1)120 (58.9)
 Both36 (23.1)23 (14.7)97 (62.2)
Sibling smoking
 No74 (14.4)81 (15.7)360 (69.9)<.0001
 Yes43 (29.1)29 (19.6)76 (51.4)
Friend smoking
 No34 (10.2)40 (12.1)258 (77.7)<.0001
 Yes83 (25.1)70 (21.2)178 (53.8)
Ownership or willingness to use a cigarette promotional item
 No53 (12.7)57 (13.7)306 (73.6)<.0001
 Yes64 (25.9)53 (21.5)130 (52.6)
  • * Both disapprove category significantly younger grade compared with other 2 (P < .0001, analysis of variance).