TABLE 4

Predictors of Serious Psychological Distress and Poor General Health in Mothers and Fathers of Australian Preschoolers

VariableSerious Psychological DistressPoor General Health
nUnadjusted OR (95% CI)PAdjusted OR (95% CI)aPnUnadjusted OR (95% CI)PAdjusted OR (95% CI)aP
Mothers of preschool-aged children, n34653458
    Moderate/severe sleep problemb40852.23 (1.61–3.10)<.00011.49 (0.98–2.28).0640811.73 (1.29–2.31)<.0011.41 (1.00–2.00).05
    Difficult child temperament40711.48 (1.00–2.19).051.21 (0.71–2.05).4840671.15 (0.84–1.59).380.98 (0.68–1.41).93
    Past history of depression407518.79 (11.84–29.81)<.000110.09 (5.94–17.13)<.00140654.00 (3.16–5.07)<.00012.96 (2.24–3.92)<.001
    Partner support in raising childrenc35360.63 (0.52–0.76)<.00011.00 (0.79–1.26).9935320.71 (0.62–0.83)<.00010.99 (0.82–1.19).91
    Overall social support/helpc40420.44 (0.37–0.54)<.00010.67 (0.52–0.87).00240830.52 (0.45–0.60)<.00010.69 (0.58–0.83)<.001
    ≥2 stressful life events40584.78 (3.38–6.76)<.00012.46 (1.60–3.77)<.00140522.11 (1.68–2.67)<.00011.41 (1.07–1.86).02
    Relationship happinessc35240.57 (0.51–0.64)<.00010.71 (0.61–0.83)<.00135200.65 (0.59–0.71)<.00010.74 (0.67–0.82)<.001
    2-parent household40870.28 (0.20–0.38)<.00010.07 (0.02–0.29)<.00140830.48 (0.36–0.62)<.00010.22 (0.05–1.04).06
Fathers of preschool-aged children, n31003178
    Moderate/severe sleep problem31731.55 (0.93–2.57).091.51 (0.90–2.54).1232621.35 (1.01–1.80).041.34 (0.99–1.81).06
    Unemployed/ menial labor31621.37 (0.71–2.63).351.34 (0.69–2.62).3832511.03 (0.70–1.53).871.03 (0.69–1.54).91
    Serious psychological distress in partner31373.28 (1.60–6.74).0012.33 (1.10–4.94).0332231.84 (1.11–3.05).021.52 (0.88–2.62).13
    Relationship happinessc31480.53 (0.42–0.66)d<.00010.56d (0.44–0.72)<.00132290.69 (0.63–0.77)<.0010.69 (0.63–0.77)<.001
    Partner support in raising childrenc31630.54 (0.42–0.71)<.00010.73 (0.52–1.04).0932460.90 (0.74–1.09).281.18 (0.94–1.47).15
  • a ORs adjusted for all other variables in table.

  • b The interaction was not significant for sleep problem and child temperament for either serious psychological distress or general health (P > .19), thus the interaction was dropped from both regressions.

  • c OR of mother having a serious psychological distress compared with not having a serious psychological distress. Departure from linearity for these ordinal variables was assessed, and in all cases the test result was nonsignificant at the 5% level. The reported ORs are linear effects representing multiplicative change in OR for each unit increase in the covariate (eg, for relationship happiness, the unadjusted OR of a mother having a serious psychological distress decreases by a factor of 0.57 [95% CI: 0.51–0.64] as relationship happiness increases by 1 point on a 7-point scale).

  • d The top 3 categories of relationship happiness were collapsed into 1 category (extremely/fairly/a little unhappy) because of very small numbers of fathers with serious psychological distress in these categories.