TABLE 3

Predictors of Serious Psychological Distress and Poor General Health in Mothers and Fathers of Australian Infants

VariableSerious Psychological DistressPoor General Health
nUnadjusted OR (95% CI)PAdjusted OR (95% CI)aPnUnadjusted OR (95% CI)PAdjusted OR (95% CI)aP
Mothers of infants, n38283820
    Moderate/severe sleep problem42491.76 (1.18–2.63).00642421.83 (1.39–2.41)<.00011.50 (1.07–2.09).02
    Past history of depression424519.08 (11.08–32.86)<.00142323.46 (2.62–4.56)<.00012.66 (2.00–3.60)<.001
    Partner support in raising childrenb38580.55 (0.45-0.67)<.0010.67 (0.51- 0.89).00538490.67 (0.58-0.77)<.00010.84 (0.71–0.99).04
    Overall social support/helpb42250.45 (0.37–0.55)<.00010.59 (0.46–0.76)<.00142180.56 (0.48–0.65)<.00010.73 (0.61–0.87)<.001
    ≥2 stressful life events42263.50 (2.50–4.90)<.00011.73 (1.13–2.63).0142152.31 (1.82–2.94)<.00011.54 (1.18–2.00).002
    Relationship happinessb38650.59 (0.53–0.67)<.00010.82 (0.69–0.97).0238560.65 (0.59–0.71)<.00010.76 (0.68–0.85)<.001
    2-parent household42520.34 (0.22–0.53)<.0001cc42450.45 (0.32–0.62)<.00010.45 (0.03–6.18).55
    Born in Australia or New Zealand42520.68 (0.47–0.98).040.59 (0.38–0.93).0242450.84 (0.62–1.12).240.70 (0.51–0.97).03
Interaction
    Sleep problem and no history of depression4.58 (1.35–15.61).02dee
    Sleep problem and history of depression1.04 (0.62–1.75)e
Fathers of infants, n33533481
    Moderate/severe sleep problem34331.90 (1.21–2.99).0061.60 (0.98–2.61).0635811.52 (1.16–1.99).0031.47 (1.11–1.94).007
    Unemployed/menial labor34221.83 (1.05–3.20).031.90 (1.06–3.38).0335701.13 (0.81–1.59).461.20 (0.85–1.70).30
    Serious Psychological distress in partner33983.87 (2.02–7.42)<.0012.34 (1.13–4.85).0235391.42 (0.78–2.62).251.08 (0.57–2.03).82
    Relationship Happinessb34030.61 (0.51–0.71)<.00010.65 (0.55–0.79)<.00135400.72 (0.65–0.79)<.00010.71 (0.64–0.79)<.001
    Partner support in raising children b34270.49 (0.39–0.62)<.00010.61 (0.45–0.84).00235640.95 (0.76–1.18).621.10 (0.85–1.41).48
  • — indicates not measured.

  • a ORs adjusted for all other variables.

  • b The OR of parent having serious psychological distress compared with parent not having serious psychological distress. Departure from linearity for these ordinal variables was assessed, and in all cases the test result was nonsignificant at the 5% level. The reported ORs are linear effects representing multiplicative change in OR for each unit increase in the covariate (eg, for relationship happiness, the unadjusted OR of a mother having a serious psychological distress decreases by a factor of 0.59 [95% CI: 0.53–0.67] as relationship happiness increases by 1 point on a 7-point scale).

  • c Two-parent household was dropped from the regression because of too few observations in 2 of the 4 cells.

  • d P value for interaction.

  • e The interaction was not statistically significant at the 5% level for mothers’ general health, thus the interaction was dropped from the regression.