Table 2.

Well-Child Visits and Immunizations* by Race and Ethnicity at Age 24 Months Among a Cohort of Infants Born in 1990 in California, Georgia, and Michigan and Enrolled in Medicaid by 1 Month of Age

Parameter White Black HispanicAsian/PacificOther Total
California
 Number of children continuously enrolled in Medicaid for 24 months27 916 19 239 53 541 10 1921895 112 783
 0–1 well visits29% 30% 30% 29% 35%30%
 2–4 well visits 40% 40% 40% 40%38% 40%
 5 or more well visits 31% 30%30% 31% 27% 30%
 0–2 sick visits 16%17% 17% 16% 21% 17%
 3–6 sick visits22% 23% 23% 22% 24% 22%
 7 or more sick visits 62% 60% 60% 62% 55% 61%
 <2 DPT47% 47% 48% 46%53% 47%
 2–3 DPTs 39% 39% 38% 19%35% 37%
 4 or more DPTs 15% 15% 14%21% 12% 15%
 <2 OPV56%56% 57% 56% 61% 57%
 2 OPVs 21%21% 21% 22% 19% 21%
 3 or more OPVs23% 22% 22% 22% 20% 22%
 MMR60% 59% 59% 61% 55%59%
 HiB20% 20% 20% 20%18% 20%
Georgia
 Number of children continuously enrolled in Medicaid for 24 months10 363 19 257 309 107 16330 199
 0–1 well visits 51% 51% 50% 59%53% 51%
 2–4 well visits 34% 35% 28%20% 25% 34%
 5 or more well visits 15%14% 22% 21% 22% 15%
 0–2 sick visits15% 16% 12% 15% 18% 16%
 3–6 sick visits 22% 21% 20% 20% 27% 21%
 7 or more sick visits 63% 63% 68% 65% 55% 63%
 <2 DPT37% 38% 34% 44%39% 38%
 2–3 DPTs 41% 42% 43% 45%43% 41%
 4 or more DPTs 21% 21% 23%11% 18% 21%
 <2 OPV45%45% 39% 49% 51% 45%
 2 OPVs 26%27% 28% 27% 25% 27%
 3 or more OPVs29% 28% 33% 24% 24% 28%
 MMR50% 49% 57% 51% 40%49%
 HiB66% 65% 71% 64%58% 66%
Michigan
 Number of children continuously enrolled in Medicaid for 24 months 21 800 17 6461361 0 539 41 346
 0–1 well visits34% 37% 31% 35% 35%
 2–4 well visits39% 48% 40% 39% 43%
 5 or more well visits 27% 15% 29% 26% 22%
 0–2 sick visits 14% 15% 13% 13% 14%
 3–6 sick visits 16% 16% 15% 14% 16%
 7 or more sick visits 70% 70% 72% 73% 70%
 <2 DPT56% 57% 55% 57% 56%
 2–3 DPTs 34% 33% 34% 32% 33%
 4 or more DPTs 11% 10% 11% 11% 10%
 <2 OPV61% 62% 61% 63%61%
 2 OPVs 23% 23% 23% 22% 23%
 3 or more OPVs 16% 16% 16% 15% 16%
 MMR31% 30% 30% 30%31%
 HiB38% 38% 38% 38%38%
  • HiB indicates Haemophilus influenzae type B.

  • * Codes for well-child visits and immunizations. State-specific 1990 codes included the following—California: 9000-1, 90010, 90015, 90020-4, 90026, 90030, 90040, 90050, 90060, 90070, 90080, 90083-4, 12603-9, 12701-15, 12817-22, 12840-2, 12844, 12846, 12850, 12860, 90720-3, 12823-6, 00807, 00813, 00814, 00720, 83022, 83033, 85401, 85014, 85018, 85020-6, 85025, 85030-4, 81005, 81010, 81015-6, 85660, 83020, 86592-3, and 84128-9; Georgia: X9198, X9147, and Y0800-3; Michigan: 0X9010-19, 009877, 009888, 169522, 169525, 409040, 409912, 409950, 40000-1, Y60013, 169019, 0X8890, 88700-1, 88703, 884288534, and 70116. CPT-4/HCPCS codes included 90225, 90753-7, 90763-4, 90701-9, 90712-4, 90717-9, 90724-8, 90731-3, 90737, 90741-2, J2750, J1670, J6015, J6025, J6045, 85014, 85018, 85021, 85031, 81000, 81002, 86580, 86585, 83020, 83052, 87072, 87110, 84030-1, 88150, 86592, 83645, 83650, 83660, and 83670. ICD-9 codes included V03.5, V03.6, V03.7, V04.0, V04.2-.3, V04.6, V06.1, V06.3, V06.4, V20.1, V20.2, V21.0, V72.0, V721.0, and 721.2.

  • Asians and Pacific Islanders in Michigan were categorized as other.

  • The prevailing AAP recommendations were 6 well-child visits by age 12 months (ages 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months) and 3 visits evenly distributed through the second year of life. The schedule for immunizations was 4 DPTs (3 at 2-month intervals between 0 and 6 months and 1 between 15 and 18 months), 3 OPVs (2 between ages 0 and 6 months at least 2 months apart and 1 at 15–18 months), and 1 MMR and 1 HiB at 15–18 months.