TABLE 2

Essential Features That Should Be Mandated in GDL Systems

1. A learner-permit phase that starts no earlier than 16 y of age and lasts at least 6 mo
2. A minimum of 30 h (preferably 50 h) of adult-supervised, on-road driving during the permit stage (at least 5–10 of these supervised practice hours should be at night)
3. A provisional (intermediate) stage, with restrictions, that lasts until 18 y of age
4. A nighttime driving restriction (9:00 pm to 5:00 am until driving with provisional license for 6 mo, followed by a midnight to 5:00 am restriction until 18 y of age)
5. Passenger limits (unless supervised by an adult)
    a. First 6 mo with provisional license: no teenaged passengers
    b. Until 18 y of age: no more than 1 teenaged passenger
6. Prompt imposition of fines, remedial driver classes, or license suspension for violation of passenger or curfew restrictions
7. Use of safety belts and appropriate child restraints by all occupants
8. No cellular phone use while in the provisional stage
9. Zero tolerance for alcohol and provisions for administrative license revocation for drunk driving, excessive speeding, or reckless driving
10. Documented safe driving record before full licensure is granted
  • It is suggested that states also consider a requirement for additional supervised driver experience/education (focused on hazard recognition and risk avoidance) during the provisional stage and a requirement for an additional on-road test to graduate from provisional to full licensure.