Table 1.

Potential Risk Factors for Developing Rickets Among the Five Rickets Cases

Rickets Cases12345
Age at diagnosis (mo)2121888
Month of birthSeptemberJuneAugustJuneSeptember
Month of diagnosisJuneMarchAprilFebruaryMay
Race, complexionBlack, unknown* Black, unknown* Black, moderate oliveBlack, dark brownBlack, moderate olive
Clothing worn outside 4 wk before diagnosisUnknown* Unknown* All body covered except face and handsAll body covered except head and handsAll body covered except head, arms, and hands
Sun exposure (h/wk)MinimalUnknown* 6–12Minimal21
Reason for minimal or inadequate sun exposure2 working professional parentsUnknown* Cold weatherSibling <5 y, and no sidewalksThought to be adequate
Number of months
breast milk was primary milk source
Pediatric vitamin D supplementsNoNoNoNoNo
Maternal vitamin D intake (IU/d)Unknown* Unknown* 150195300
Maternal dietary restrictionsUnknown* Unknown* Dieting, restrict milk intakeNoneLactose intolerant, no red meat
Other maternal dietary issuesUnknown* Unknown* Low calcium intake (4 oz milk/d)Low calcium intake (8 oz milk/d), low volume breast milk producedDrank 30 oz rice milk/d vitamin D fortification unknown
Maternal age (y)Unknown* Unknown* 213134
Total number of children in household (includes case)33224
Number of siblings <5 y (excluding patient)1Unknown* 111
Household incomeUnknown* Unknown* $10 000–$29 999$10 000–$29 999$30 000–$49 999
Number of doctorsUnknown* Unknown* 111
Immunizations up to dateNo, missing 18-mo shotsYesNo, missing 6-mo shotsYesYes
  • * Unknown because information not in the medical record and parent not available for interview.