TABLE 3

Average Total Costs ($) of Health Care Services for Children With ASDs and Control Children Enrolled in the Northern California KP From July 2003 to June 2004

Children With ASDsControl ChildrenASD/Control Ratio, Ratio of MeansP
MeanMedianSDMeanMedianSD
Annual total of health care costs per member
Outpatient clinic costs, total1373712266654027815252.5<.0001
    Pediatrics3582314402321403241.5<.0001
    Psychiatry611015337705508.0<.0001
    Neurology240125203711.9<.0001
    Other clinic visitsa29201297179011201.6<.0001
Inpatient hospital costs41105097140026632.9<.0001
    Psychiatric1690218514039812.4<.0001
    Nonpsychiatric24204554126026231.9.03
Outpatient hospital costs13908526808612.0<.0001
ED costs6702805201961.3.0001
Medication costs72479176196119317.6<.0001
    Psychotherapeutic agentsb6010146424022124.8<.0001
    Antiinfective agents220243140861.6<.0001
    Analgesics/antirheumatic agents303620301.3.19
    Gastrointestinal agents606620402.9<.0001
    Respiratory/allergy agents300308150972.0<.0001
Total27151058674289633536793.0<.0001
  • a “Other” includes visits to the following outpatient departments: allergy, adult primary care, alternative medicine, anesthesia, dermatology, obstetrics/gynecology, occupational medicine, ophthalmology, orthopedics, physical medicine, physical therapy, rehabilitation therapy, surgery, substance abuse, urgent care, and urology.

  • b Includes β -adrenergic blockers, antiadrenergic agents, antihypertensive combinations, benzodiazepine anticonvulsant agents, miscellaneous anticonvulsant agents, antidepressants, antianxiety agents, antipsychotic agents, miscellaneous psychotherapeutic agents, and amphetamines.