Table 4.

Age-Adjusted Frequencies of Selected Confirmed Morbidity Conditions Among HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Children*

Clinical ConditionGroup 1
% (95% CI)
Group 2
% (95% CI)
Group 3
% (95% CI)
n = 387n = 1247n= 319
Male gender47.4 (37.0–57.8)51.6 (46.3–56.9)50.0 (39.2–60.8)
Oral thrush10.3 (5.8–14.8)1.9 (1.1–2.7).9 (.01–1.9)
Herpes simplex3.3 (.1–6.6).6 (.2–1.0).5 (.01–1.1)
Otitis media9.9 (5.2–14.6)1.9 (.9–2.9)3.2 (1.0–5.4)
Dermatitis12.5 (7.8–17.2)4.2 (2.6–5.8).9 (.01–1.9)
Coughing on examination55.1 (47.7–62.6)33.8 (30.3–37.3)26.0 (19.9–32.1)
Chest examination: retractions1.7 (.5–2.9).9 (3–1.5).2 (.01–.6)
 wheezes5.9 (3.5–8.3)4.0 (2.6–5.4)3.1 (1.5–4.7)
 rales27.0 (19.2–34.8)12.1 (9.4–14.3)11.1 (7.6–14.6)
Palpable lymph nodes§
 Occipital37.2 (30.9–43.5)19.2 (16.5–21.9)18.1 (12.8–23.4)
 Submandibular/-mental13.8 (10.1–17.5)3.8 (2.6–5.0)1.8 (.4–3.2)
 Cervical/supraclavicular20.1 (13.6–26.6)7.7 (5.7–9.7)12.2 (7.9–16.5)
 Axillary27.3 (21.6–33.0)7.8 (6.0–9.6)7.6 (4.1–11.1)
 Inguinal38.6 (32.2–44.9)24.7 (21.6–27.8)17.4 (12.9–21.9)
Splenomegaly3.7 (1.7–5.7)2.4 (.01–7.1).8 (.01–2.0)
Developmental delay15.4 (11.7–19.1)3.4 (1.2–4.6)3.0 (1.2–4.8)
  • * Age adjusted to a uniform distribution between 9 months and 3 years of age as described elsewhere.14

  • Confirmed by examination.

  • Group 1 were HIV-infected children; group 2, uninfected children born to HIV-seropositive mothers; group 3, children born to HIV-seronegative mothers.

  • § Lymphadenopathy of any size. Lymph nodes of >1 cm were also significantly more common among infected than among uninfected children.

  • Overall number of visits made by 190 group 1, 499 group 2, and 119 group 3 children.

  • Statistically significant difference (P < .05) between HIV-infected and -uninfected children.