Table 3.

Risk of Asthma at the Age of Four Years in Children With and Without Bronchial Obstruction From Birth to Two Years of Life According to Early-Life Respiratory Infections, Birth Order, and Day Care Attendance at the Age of One Year

nRisk of AsthmaCrude ORAdjusted OR95% CI
With bronchial obstruction 0–2 y of life
Lower respiratory tract infection in the first 12 mo of life
No (reference)85.306
Yes140.3571.32.0.9–4.3
Otitis media in the first 12 mo of life
No (reference)116.276
Yes83.3611.51.3.7–2.5
Croup in the first 12 mo of life
No (reference)173.289
Yes26.4622.11.7.7–4.3
* Common cold in the first 6 mo of life
No (reference)45.222
Yes161.3421.81.8.8–4.1
Birth order
First (reference)78.346
Second or later147.333.9.5.2–1.1
Day care at the age of 1 y
No (reference)176.364
Yes49.245.6.5.2–1.1
Without bronchial obstruction 0–2 y of life
Lower respiratory tract infection in the first 12 mo of life
No (reference)2036.036
Yes270.0521.41.3.7–2.4
Otitis media in the first 12 mo of life
No (reference)1616.033
Yes507.0611.91.91.2–3.0
Croup in the first 12 mo of life
No (reference)2016.039
Yes107.0651.71.5.7–3.4
* Common cold in the first 6 mo of life
No (reference)708.025
Yes1490.0461.81.91.1–3.3
Birth order
First (reference)1254.049
Second or later1052.025.5.5.3–.9
Day care center attendance at 1 y
No (reference)1975.037
Yes331.0451.21.1.6–2.0
  • Adjusted ORs: controlled for (other) respiratory infections first 12 months of life, gender, parental atopy, birth order, day care center attendance at 1 year of life, breastfeeding at 6 months of life, maternal age, environmental tobacco smoke exposure in early life, and pets.

  • * Adjusted for other respiratory infections in the first 6 months and not in the first 12 months of life.