Table 2.

Risk of Bronchial Obstruction From Birth to Two Years of Life (n = 225) and Asthma at the Age of Four Years (n= 164) According to Early-Life Respiratory Infections, Birth Order, and Day Care Attendance at the Age of One Year

All
n= 2531
Risk of Bronchial Obstruction
0 to 2 years of Life
Risk of Asthma
at the Age of 4 Years
RiskCrude ORAdjusted OR95% CIRiskCrude ORAdjusted OR95% CI
* Respiratory infections in the first 6 mo of life
Lower respiratory tract infection
No (reference)2397.074.060
Yes134.3587.06.34.2–9.6.1422.62.31.3–3.9
Otitis media
No (reference)2278.078.058
Yes126.2223.42.31.4–3.8.1512.92.51.4–4.3
Croup
No (reference)2378.083.061
Yes26.3465.94.21.6–10.5.1923.62.91.0–8.2
Common cold
No (reference)753.060.037
Yes1651.0981.71.41.0–2.0.0752.12.01.3–3.1
 Respiratory infections in the first 12 mo of life
Lower respiratory tract infecton
No (reference)2121.040.047
Yes410.34112.411.68.3–16.2.1563.73.42.4–4.9
Otitis media
No (reference)1732.067.050
Yes590.1411.41.41.0–1.9.1031.31.81.2–2.6
Croup
No (reference)2189.079.058
Yes133.1951.92.31.3–3.9.1431.72.11.2–3.7
Common cold
No (reference)171.053.029
Yes2154.0881.71.5.7–3.3.0662.32.3.9–5.7
 Indicators of exposure to infectious agents
Birth order
First (reference)1332.059.067
Second or later1199.1232.21.81.3–2.6.063.9.7.5–1.0
Day care center attendance at 1 y old
No (reference)2151.082.064
Yes380.1291.71.61.1–2.4.0711.11.0.6–1.6
  • All adjusted ORs are controlled for gender, parental atopy, birth order, day care center attendance at 1 year of life, breastfeeding at 6 months of life, maternal age, environmental tobacco smoke exposure in early life, and pets at the age of 6 months.

  • * Adjusted ORs are additionally controlled for the other infections first 6 months of life.

  • Adjusted ORs are additionally controlled for the (other) infections during the first 12 months of life. Missing information on otitis media, croup, and common cold from 127 to 209 children.