Table 1.

Conditions Associated With Risk to Newborns

Antepartum risk factors
 Maternal diabetes
 Pregnancy-induced hypertension
 Chronic hypertension
 Chronic maternal illness
  Cardiovascular
  Thyroid
  Neurological
  Pulmonary
  Renal
 Anemia or isoimmunization
 Previous fetal or neonatal death
 Bleeding in second or third trimester
 Maternal infection
 Polyhydramnios
 Oligohydramnios
 Premature rupture of membranes
 Post-term gestation
 Multiple gestation
 Size-dates discrepancy
 Drug therapy, eg,
  Lithium carbonate
  Magnesium
  Adrenergic-blocking drugs
 Maternal substance abuse
 Fetal malformation
 Diminished fetal activity
 No prenatal care
 Age <16 or >35 years
Intrapartum risk factors
 Emergency cesarean section
 Forceps or vacuum-assisted delivery
 Breech or other abnormal presentation
 Premature labor
 Precipitous labor
 Chorioamnionitis
 Prolonged rupture of membranes (>18 hours before delivery)
 Prolonged labor (>24 hours)
 Prolonged second stage of labor (>2 hours)
 Fetal bradycardia
 Non-reassuring fetal heart rate patterns
 Use of general anesthesia
 Uterine tetany
 Narcotics administered to mother within 4 hours of delivery
 Meconium-stained amniotic fluid
 Prolapsed cord
 Abruptio placentae
 Placenta previa