Table 1.

Conditions Associated With Risk to Newborns

Antepartum risk factors
 Maternal diabetes
 Pregnancy-induced hypertension
 Chronic hypertension
 Chronic maternal illness
 Anemia or isoimmunization
 Previous fetal or neonatal death
 Bleeding in second or third trimester
 Maternal infection
 Premature rupture of membranes
 Post-term gestation
 Multiple gestation
 Size-dates discrepancy
 Drug therapy, eg,
  Lithium carbonate
  Adrenergic-blocking drugs
 Maternal substance abuse
 Fetal malformation
 Diminished fetal activity
 No prenatal care
 Age <16 or >35 years
Intrapartum risk factors
 Emergency cesarean section
 Forceps or vacuum-assisted delivery
 Breech or other abnormal presentation
 Premature labor
 Precipitous labor
 Prolonged rupture of membranes (>18 hours before delivery)
 Prolonged labor (>24 hours)
 Prolonged second stage of labor (>2 hours)
 Fetal bradycardia
 Non-reassuring fetal heart rate patterns
 Use of general anesthesia
 Uterine tetany
 Narcotics administered to mother within 4 hours of delivery
 Meconium-stained amniotic fluid
 Prolapsed cord
 Abruptio placentae
 Placenta previa