Indirect Evidence: Treatment of Other Problems by the Primary Care Team

StudyDesignBrief Description of InterventionPopulationSample SizeLength of Follow-UpSummary of Results
Crawford et al, 198933aSBABehavior therapyChildren with sleep disorders97 wkAll patients reduced number of problem incidents pre- to postassessment
Cullen, 197634, Cullen and Cullen, 199635aRCTBrief pre-school interviews with parents (psychological health promotion) vs controlCommunity sample2466 and 20 ySome differences in behavior and relationships favoring the intervention group, but no difference between groups in terms of school performance; Some differences endured for up to 20–30 y (eg, neurotic symptoms)
Galbraith et al, 199336aSBABehavior therapyChildren with sleep disturbances4534 wkTime to settle and mean wakings reduced significantly over time; At discharge, 73% of parents were satisfied with the treatment
Hewitt, 199137aCBATwo parent educational interventions (educational leaflets plus 2 schedules of HV contact) vs control9-mo to 2-y-olds1329 mo and 2 yParents in first intervention group reported more potentially problematic behavior at 9 mo and 2 y; No difference in reports of actual problem behavior at either point; No differences between second intervention and controls at 9 months.
Houtzager et al, 200138SBA5-session support groupSiblings of children with cancer24Unclear: “After group participation”Siblings experience less anxiety after participating in the group
Oliansky, 199739aRCTEducational intervention by nurses vs controlAdolescents at risk for substance use251 and 3 moSelf-reported alcohol use lower in intervention group at 1 and 2 mo
Scott and Richards, 199040aRCTResearcher acting in supportive capacity plus booklet vs booklet alone vs controlChildren under 18 mo with night waking9012 wkNo significant differences in night waking measures between the 2 intervention groups and controls
Tutty et al, 200342RCT8-wk behavioral and social skill class in an HMO serving primary care/specialty care needsChildren newly diagnosed with ADHD1003 and 6 moIntervention group reported significantly lower parent-rated ADHD symptoms, and the training was well-accepted
  • RCT indicates randomized, controlled trial; CBA, controlled before and after study; SBA, simple before and after study; HV, health visitor; HMO, health maintenance organization.

  • a Studies are taken from Bower et al.24