Table 4.

Multivariate Predictors of Sleep Problems or Frequent Sleep Problems in 1993 Among Those Reporting Sleep Problems in 1989

Baseline PredictorsFollow-Up
Sleep Problems
Odds Ratio
(95% Confidence
Interval)
Frequent
Sleep Problems
Odds Ratio
(95% Confidence
Interval)
Sex
 Females1.001.00
 Males.73 (.63–.85).90 (.75–1.08)
Age group (y)
 17–181.001.00
 15–16.96 (.79–1.18)1.01 (.78–1.30)
 12–14.97 (.81–1.18)1.11 (.87–1.41)
Race/ethnicity
 White1.001.00
 Black.87 (.68–1.12)0.79 (.58–1.08)
 Hispanic1.16 (.85–1.59)1.22 (.88–1.70)
 Asian/other1.40 (.90–2.17)1.80 (1.21–2.68)
Family income
 <$16 0001.001.00
 $16 000–$29 999.95 (.75–1.21).89 (.66–1.22)
 $30 000–$49 999.95 (.74–1.21).82 (.61–1.12)
 $50 000+.99 (.75–1.31).82 (.59–1.15)
Perceived school
performance
 Much better1.001.00
 Better1.15 (.89–1.48)1.39 (1.00–1.92)
 Average/below1.07 (.83–1.37)1.33 (.98–1.79)
Rebelliousness
 Not rebellious1.001.00
 Rebellious1.10 (.93–1.31)1.14 (.92–1.41)
Depressive symptoms
 Not depressed1.001.00
 Depressed1.24 (1.04–1.48)1.57 (1.30–1.89)
Smoking status
 Never smoker1.001.00
 Experimenter.95 (.80–1.13)1.29 (1.04–1.54)
 Established smoker1.26 (.95–1.66)2.18 (1.63–2.91)
  • Note: n = 3094.