Table 2.

Multivariate Predictors of Sleep Problems or Frequent Sleep Problems in 1993 Among Adolescents Without Sleep Problems in 1989

Baseline PredictorsFollow-Up
Sleep Problems Odds Ratio
(95% Confidence Interval)
Frequent Sleep Problems
Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
Sex
 Females1.001.00
 Males.67 (.58–.77).60 (.49–.75)
Age group (y)
 17–181.001.00
 15–161.07 (.89–1.28)1.09 (.82–1.45)
 12–141.30 (1.09–1.54)1.21 (.94–1.56)
Race/ethnicity
 White1.001.00
 Black1.12 (.93–1.34)1.31 (.94–1.81)
 Hispanic1.16 (.91–1.49)1.05 (.71–1.53)
 Asian/other1.27 (.83–1.95).60 (.29–1.26)
Family income
 <$16 0001.001.00
 $16 000–$29 9991.00 (.82–1.22)1.15 (.83–1.61)
 $30 000–$49 999.98 (.81–1.20)1.00 (.71–1.41)
 $50 000+.83 (.67–1.02).67 (.46–.97)
Perceived school
performance
 Much better1.001.00
 Better.97 (.80–1.17)1.04 (.73–1.47)
 Average/below1.06 (.88–1.29)1.27 (.92–1.75)
Rebelliousness
 Not rebellious1.001.00
 Rebellious1.12 (.97–1.30)1.29 (1.03–1.61)
Notable depressive
symptoms
 Not depressed1.001.00
 Depressed1.54 (1.21–1.97)1.47 (1.03–2.04)
Smoking status
 Never smoker1.001.00
 Experimenter1.20 (1.03–1.40)1.56 (1.21–2.00)
 Established smoker1.47 (1.16–1.87)2.10 (1.47–3.01)
  • Note: n = 4866.