TABLE 2

Perinatal Characteristics and Morbidities Among 1472 Infants

CharacteristicsNo IVH (n = 1043), 71%All IVH (n = 429), 29%IVH I–II (n = 336), 23%Isolated IVH I–IIa (n = 296), 20%IVH III–IV (n = 93), 6%
Maternal
 Maternal age, y31(26–35)30 (23–34)30 (25–34)30 (25–34)30 (23–34)
 Aboriginal ethnicity41 (3.9)13 (3.0)11 (3.3)7 (2.4)2 (2.1)
 Assisted conception152 (14.6)65 (15.1)49 (14.6)44 (14.8)16 (17.2)
 Pregnancy-induced hypertension214 (20.5)47 (10.9)***41 (12.2)***37 (12.5)***6 (6.5)***
 ROM >24 h255 (24.4)118 (27.5)94 (28.0)86 (29)24 (25.8)
 APH300 (28.8)139 (32.4)106 (31.5)97 (32.7)33 (35.5)
 IUGR103 (9.9)23 (5.3)**17 (5.1)**13 (4.4)**6 (6.5)
 Multiple pregnancy288 (27.6)104 (24.2)81 (24.1)71 (23.9)23 (24.7)
 Antenatal steroids945 (90.4)377 (87.8)301 (89.5)270 (91.2)76 (81.7)*
Delivery
 Fetal distress191 (18.3)76 (17.7)57 (17.0)51 (17.2)19 (20.4)
 Breech delivery90 (8.6)59 (13.7)**46 (13.7)**42 (14.2)**13 (14.0)
 Caesarean section643 (61.6)169 (39.3)***130 (38.6)***115 (38.8)***39 (41.9)***
 Outborn68 (6.5)40 (9.3)25 (7.4)22 (7.4)15 (16.1)***
 Apgar <7 at 5 min181 (17.3)100 (23.3)*70 (20.8)62 (20.9)30 (32.2)***
Neonatal
 GA, wk27(2)26 (2)26 (2)26 (2)26 (2)
 Birth wt, g956 (329)915 (342)*895 (349)*889 (344)*960 (348)
 Birth wt <10th percentile121 (11.6)31 (7.2)*25 (7.4)*20 (6.7)*6 (6.5)
 HC <10th percentile85 (8.1)33 (7.7)28 (8.3)26 (8.7)5 (5.4)
 Male gender532 (51.0)254 (59.2)**195 (58.0)*175 (59.1)*59 (63.4)*
 Surfactant722 (69.2)328 (76.4)**245 (72.9)218 (73.6)83 (89.2)***
 CLD377 (36.1)219 (51)***164 (48.8)***146 (49.3)***55 (59.1)***
 Postnatal steroids256 (24.5)151 (35)***111 (33.0)**97 (32.7)**40 (43.0)***
 Home oxygen199 (19.1)107 (24.9)*84 (25.0)*73 (24.6)*23 (24.7)
 PDA treated427 (40.9)220 (51.3)***170 (50.6)**167 (56.4)**50 (53.8)*
 NEC62 (5.9)48 (11.2)***34 (10.1)**25 (8.4)14 (16.1)**
 ROP grade ≥3b110/103 (10.7)77/425 (18.1)***56/332 (16.7)**48 (16.2)**21/93 (22.6)**
 Systemic infection383(36.7)212 (49.4)***159 (47.3)***139 (46.9)***53 (57.0)***
 PVL9/999 (0.9)24/425 (5.6)***14/332 (4.2)***0/29610/93 (10.7)***
 Porencephalic or other cysts5/999 (0.5)23/425 (5.4)***8/332 (2.4)**0/29615/93 (16.1)***
 Ventricle size >97th8/999 (0.8)68/425 (16)***18/332 (5.4)***0/29650/93 (53.8)***
  • Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or n (%). No-IVH group acted as the control group for all comparisons. APH, antepartum hemorrhage; CLD, chronic lung disease; IUGR, antenatal diagnosis of intrauterine growth restriction; IUGR, intrauterine growth restriction; NEC, necrotzing enterocolitis; PDA, patent ductus arteriosus. *P < .05; **P < .01; ***P < .001.

  • a Isolated grade I–II IVH, defined as grade I–II IVH without PVL, porencephaly, and ventricular enlargement >97th percentile.

  • b Denominator is number of infants examined.