Table 2.

Difference in Mean CHIP-AE Scale Scores between the Incarcerated and School Youth Samples

ScaleDifference Score
UnadjustedAdjusted
Domain: Satisfaction
 Satisfaction with health−1.62-165−0.6
 Self-esteem−2.62-165−1.8**
Domain: Discomfort
 Physical discomfort1.72-1651.6**
 Emotional discomfort1.62-1650.9
 Limitations in activity−1.0*−1.6**
Domain: Disorders
 Acute minor2.32-1652.1**
 Acute major4.52-1654.52-165
 Recurrent1.2*0.7
 Long-term medical1.5*1.6*
 Long-term surgical1.8**1.7*
 Psychosocial2.32-1652.5**
Domain: Resilience
 Family involvement−3.82-165−4.52-165
 Physical activity−2.02-165−1.8**
 Interpersonal problem solving−0.8−2.62-165
Home safety and health−1.4**−1.3*
Domain: Risks
 Individual risks8.02-1655.42-165
 Threats to achievement2.62-1652.42-165
 Peer influences7.52-1655.02-165
Domain: Achievement
 Academic performance−2.52-165−1.3*
 Work performance00.5
  • * P ≥ .01 < .05;

  • ** P ≥ .001 < .01;

  • F2-165 P < .001.

  • A negative difference score denotes a lower mean scale score for incarcerated youth compared with youths in the school sample, and vice versa for scores with a positive sign. Subdomains were scored in the direction of their effect. Higher scores on Satisfaction, Resilience, and Achievement subdomains imply better health, whereas higher scores on Discomfort, Disorders, and Risks subdomains imply poorer health.

  • Adjusted difference scores were obtained by regressing the scale score on respondent age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic covariates.