TABLE 3

Asthma Care and Management Among Children Treated for Asthma at 3 Michigan EDs (Urban, Suburban, and Rural)

CharacteristicTotal (n = 197), % (n)Urban (n = 139), % (n)Suburban (n = 35), % (n)Rural (n = 23), % (n)P
Asthma equipment
    Have spacer59.9 (121)61.9 (86)51.4 (20)60.9 (15).53
    Use spacer.36a
        Always61.2 (74)66.3 (57)50.0 (10)46.7 (7)
        Usually19.0 (23)17.4 (15)20.0 (4)26.7 (4)
        Rarely19.8 (24)16.3 (14)30.0 (6)26.7 (4)
    Have PFMb61.1 (69)68.9 (51)50.0 (12)40.0 (6).05
    Use PFM.20a
        Daily14.5 (10)15.7 (8)8.3 (1)16.7 (1)
        1–6/wk18.8 (13)17.7 (9)33.3 (4)0 (0)
        Only during exacerbations39.1 (27)45.1 (23)25.0 (3)16.7 (1)
        Rarely (<1/wk)27.5 (19)21.6 (11)33.3 (4)66.7 (4)
    Have asthma-management plan43.1 (85)42.5 (59)48.5 (16)43.5 (10).82
    Undertreatmentc36.5 (38)25.7 (18)47.8 (11)81.8 (9)<.001
Asthma education (ever)
    Any type71.1 (140)74.3 (104)62.9 (22)60.9 (14).23
Specific types of education
    How to use inhaler or nebulizer99.2 (139)100.0 (104)100.0 (22)92.8 (13).86
    Medications and treatments95.0 (133)96.2 (100)86.4 (19)100.0 (14).12a
    Asthma triggers88.6 (124)86.5 (90)90.0 (20)100.0 (14).92a
    Asthma attack strategy82.9 (116)84.6 (88)81.8 (18)71.4 (10).41a
    How to use a PFM58.6 (82)52.7 (60)72.3 (17)35.7 (5).04
    How to use an asthma-management plan53.6 (75)52.9 (55)59.1 (13)50.0 (7).83
    Any type71.1 (140)74.3 (104)62.9 (22)60.9 (14).23
  • a The P value is based on Fisher's exact test.

  • b Among subjects ≥7 years of age (n = 113).

  • c Undertreatment was defined as no current ICS use among children with moderate persistent (n = 29) or severe persistent asthma (n = 37) or no current long-term controller-medication use among children with mild persistent asthma (n = 40). Two subjects (1 mild persistent, 1 moderate persistent) had missing information on medications; hence n = 104 (urban, 70; suburban, 23; rural, 11).