TABLE 2

Descriptive Characteristics and Infant Diet Exposures of the Children in the Study Cohort

CharacteristicAffected With Wheat Allergy (n = 16)Unaffected (n = 1596)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)
Age, mean (SD), y4.6 (2.6)4.7 (3.2)1.0 (0.84–1.15)
Gestational age, mean (SD), wk39.2 (1.61)39.4 (1.87)1.0 (0.75–1.21)
Ethnicity, n (%)a
    Non-Hispanic white12 (75)1118 (70)1.00
    Other4 (25)476 (30)0.8 (0.25–2.44)
Gender, n (%)
    Male11 (69)830 (52)1.00
    Female5 (31)766 (48)0.5 (0.17–1.42)
HLA status, n (%)a
    DR 3/46 (37)405 (26)1.8 (0.63–4.85)
    Not DR 3/410 (63)1182 (74)1.00
First-degree relative with asthma, eczema, or hives, n (%)
    Yes10 (63)483 (30)3.8 (1.39–10.63)
    No6 (37)1113 (70)1.00
Maternal education, n (%)a
    ≤12 y3 (19)401 (26)0.7 (0.19–2.37)
    > 12 y13 (81)1169 (74)1.00
Family history of diabetes, n (%)
    Yes3 (19)498 (31)0.5 (0.14–1.79)
    No13 (81)1098 (69)1.00
Cereal-grain introduction, n (%)
    0–6 mo4 (25)954 (60)1.00
    ≥7 mo12 (75)642 (40)4.77 (1.33–17.09)
Rice-grain introduction, n (%)
    0 to 6 mo12 (75)1419 (89)1.00
    ≥7 mo4 (25)177 (11)2.7 (0.85–8.37)
Breastfeeding duration, mean (SD), mo10.3 (8.9)6.5 (6.69)1.11 (1.01–1.11)
Breastfed when first exposed to cereals, n (%)
    Yes10 (62)735 (46)2.0 (0.71–5.40)
    No6 (38)861 (54)1.00
Any food allergy before 6 mo of age, n (%)
    Yes7 (44)181 (11%)6.4 (2.3–17.3)
    No9 (56)1415 (89)1.00
  • Wald χ2 values are from a univariate logistic-regression model.

  • a Data missing: ethnicity, 2; HLA status, 9; maternal education, 26.