Table 9.

Summary of Evidence and Estimates

Parameter (Arc)Estimate (SD)95% Confidence
Interval
Source
Pediatric screen (1 → 3)8.6 (7.1)0.58 –27Meta-analysis, Table 4, studies acknowledging 3 categories
Orthopaedic screen (1 → 5)11.5 (11)0.48 –39Meta-analysis, excluding outlier,Table 4
US screen (1 → 4)24.9 (23.5)0.86 –82Meta-analysis, excluding outlier, Table 4
Mid-term postneonatal DDH
 After pediatric screen (3− → 20)0.34 (0.29)0 –1.9Meta-analysis, excluding outlier,Table 5
 After orthopaedic screen (5− → 20)0.1 (0.1)0.08 –0.12Pooled and average agree, Table 5
 After US screen (4− → 20)0.28 (0.28)0.0 –0.84Single study, standard error from the study, Table 5
Late-term postneonatal DDH
 After pediatric screen (3− → 29, 30)0.21 (0.29)0.0 –0.79Average; pooled is too small,Table 5
 After orthopaedic screen (5− → 29, 30)0.08 (0.10)0.0 –0.28Average and pooled agree, Table 5
 After US screen (4− → 29, 30)0.2 (0.2)0.0 –0.4Single study, continuity correction, Table 5. Note that this estimate is half the confidence interval and not the raw estimate from the study.
AVN after early referral (5, 12+ → 31)2.5 (9.5)0 –27Meta-analysis, excluding outliers, Table 7
AVN after later referral (20, 29, 30+ → 31)109 (88)8.2 –338Meta-analysis, Table 7
Risk factor
 Girl4.13.0 –5.7Meta-analysis, pediatric, agrees with estimates for orthopaedic and US screens, Table 8
 Breech5.52.6 –11.6Meta-analysis, pediatric, intermediate between estimates for orthopaedic and US screens, Table 8
 Family history1.70.05 –55Meta-analysis, pediatric, intermediate between estimates for orthopaedic and US screens, Table 8
  • US indicates ultrasonographic.