Table 5.

Summary of Evidence Tables for Mid-Term (6 to 12 Months of Age) Postneonatal Diagnosis*

Initial Strategy
(Arc, Showing
Initial Negative
Examination)
Rate per 1000 Initial ExaminationsSample Size
Average (SD)
Sample Size
Total
No. of
Arms§
Unweighted
Average
(SD)
Weighted
Average
(SD)
Meta-analytic
Average
(SD)
Pediatric examination (3− → 20; 29, 30)0.43 (0.77)0 (1)0.48 (0.6)77 384 (164 393)1 934 61125
0.30 (0.35)0# (0)  0.34 (0.29)
Orthopaedic examination
(5− → 20; 29, 30)
0.075 (0.085)0.1 (0.1)ND29 269 (9506)117 0774
Ultrasonographic examination
(4− → 20; 29, 30)
0.28** (0.28)ND80012
  • ND indicates not done.

  • * See Evidence Tables 4, 5, and 6.

  • Arc refers to the influence diagram (see Fig. 2).

  • Weighted estimates computed by pooling the numerators and denominators of the target arms.

  • § Some studies involved more than 1 arm.

  • Without outlier (target article 23 (839 986 subjects), the mean (SD) sample size is 45 609 (43 141).

  • Without outlier (target article 40; mid-term rate, 3.73/1000 infants).

  • # Without outlier (target article 40; mid-term rate, 3.73/1000 infants). The median is 0.05.

  • ** This single study had 1 arm comprising newborns without and with risk factors for DDH. The observed DDH rate for the with risk factors was 0.46 for mid-term DDH and 0.23 for late-term. The SD given is the standard error calculated from the study.