Initial Strategy (Arc, ^{†} ShowingInitial Negative Examination) | Rate per 1000 Initial Examinations | Sample Size Average (SD) | Sample Size Total | No. of Arms ^{§} | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Unweighted Average (SD) | Weighted^{‡}Average (SD) | Meta-analytic Average (SD) | ||||

Pediatric examination (3− → 20; 29, 30) | 0.43 (0.77) | 0 (1) | 0.48 (0.6) | 77 384^{‖} (164 393) | 1 934 611 | 25 |

0.30^{¶} (0.35) | 0^{#} (0) | 0.34^{¶} (0.29) | ||||

Orthopaedic examination (5− → 20; 29, 30) | 0.075 (0.085) | 0.1 (0.1) | ND | 29 269 (9506) | 117 077 | 4 |

Ultrasonographic examination (4− → 20; 29, 30) | 0.28^{**} (0.28) | ⋯ | ND | ⋯ | 8001 | 2 |

ND indicates not done.

* See Evidence Tables 4, 5, and 6.

↵† Arc refers to the influence diagram (see Fig. 2).

↵‡ Weighted estimates computed by pooling the numerators and denominators of the target arms.

↵§ Some studies involved more than 1 arm.

↵‖ Without outlier (target article 23 (839 986 subjects), the mean (SD) sample size is 45 609 (43 141).

↵¶ Without outlier (target article 40; mid-term rate, 3.73/1000 infants).

↵# Without outlier (target article 40; mid-term rate, 3.73/1000 infants). The median is 0.05.

↵** This single study had 1 arm comprising newborns without and with risk factors for DDH. The observed DDH rate for the with risk factors was 0.46 for mid-term DDH and 0.23 for late-term. The SD given is the standard error calculated from the study.