Table 1.

Two Children With Mercury Intoxication and Hypertension and Review of the Literature

ReferenceAuthorPatient's
Age/Sex
Urine Mercury
nmol/L
Source of MercurySymptoms and Blood Pressure
(mm Hg)
Catecholamine Level
2McNeil et al14-y-old girl2600Elemental mercury spillage122/98Not available
Weight loss, anxiety, rash, pain
3Henningsson et al14-y-old boy400Playing with elemental mercury,
mercury poured into an electrical
coil heater
160/120
Irritability, tachycardia,
 sweating, tremors, rash, back pain
Plasma (nmol/L)
Norepi 13.8 (n: .66–3.56)
Epi 3.61 (n: <.34)
Dopamine 3.29 (n: <.54)
Urine (n: nmol/24 h)
Metanephrine .60 (n: >6)
Catecholamines 5.05 (n: <1.5)
4Cloarec et al32-mo-old girl273Broken thermometer150/100Urine (nmol/mmol creatinine)
Tachycardia, irritability, anorexia,
insomnia, rash of hands and feet
Dopamine 711 (n: 517 ± 280)
Norepi + Epi 303 (n: 65 ± 43)
Urine Metanephrine
5Oliveira and Silva17-y-old boy1045Manual handling of elemental Hg
for extraction of gold without
appropriate protection
200/130
Headache, tremors, pallor, irritability,
 diaphoresis, vomiting, diarrhea,
 weight loss, erythematous
 desquamating rash
2 mg/g/creatinine
VMA 15 mg/24 h
Dopamine 500 μg/24 h
Epi 70 μg/24 h
Norepi 206 μg/
6Boudouin et al28-mo-old girl98Broken thermometer150/100
Tachycardia, irritability, polydipsia,
 anorexia, sweating, pain with walking,
 rash
Plasma (nmol/L)
Norepi 14.1 (n: 1.1–1.6)
Epi 1.2 (n: .15–.4)
Urine (nmol/mmol creatinine)
(Over 3 d)
Norepi 908–2937 (n: 10–210)
Epi 154–734 (n: 10–50)
Dopamine 1173–1761 (n: 70–470)
7Velzeboer et al11-mo-old girl62.7Broken thermometer130/90
Tachycardia, drowsiness, malaise,
 anorexia, sweating, pruritis,
 swollen extremities
Plasma (nmol/L)
Norepi 7.52
Epi 2.81
Urine (nmol/mmol creatinine)

Norepi 358
Epi 108
No normals reported
Our patient 14-y-old boy2233Spilled elemental mercury
from a pressure gauge
177/123
Tachycardia, seizures, diaphoresis,
 irritability, anorexia, pain, weight loss
Plasma (pg/mL)
Norepi 388 (n: 70–750)
Epi 29 (n: 0–110)
Urine (μg/24 h)
Epi 1.8 (n: .2–10)
Norepi 72./1 (n: 8.0–45)
Dopamine 212.1 (n: 65–400)
VMA 10.1 mg/g of creatinine (n: 0–8.3)
Our patient 26-y-old girl6773.8Spilled elemental mercury from a
pressure gauge
148/78
Desquamating rash of hands and
 palms, erythema, tachycardia
Urine (μg/24 h)
Epi 12.4 (n: .2–10)
Norepi 49 (n: 8–45)
Dopamine 183.5 (n: 65–400)
VMA: 10.1 mg/g of creatinine (n: 0–8.3)