OutcomeInstrumentData Source
Parent satisfaction with pediatric careHealthy Steps evaluation instrumentParent interview (baseline; 30 mo)
Knowledge of child developmentKnowledge of Infant Development Inventory (selected items: milestones and judgments) Parent interview (baseline)
Parent Behavior Checklist (selected items: expectations scale) Parent interview (30 mo)
Parenting sense of competenceParenting Sense of Competence Scale§ Parent interview (baseline; 30 mo)
Practices related to child safetyGielen and colleagues injury prevention study Parent interview (baseline; 30 mo) Forms completed at visits (6, 12, 18, and 24 mo)
Practices to promote child developmentCommonwealth Parent Survey Parent interview (baseline; 30 mo) Forms completed at visits (6, 12, 18, and 24 mo)
Parent Behavior Checklist (selected items: nurturing scale) Parent interview (30 mo)
Discipline beliefs and practicesCommonwealth Parent Survey Parent interview (baseline)
Parental Response to Misbehavior (modified)# Parent interview (30 mo)
Maternal depressionCES-D (selected items)** Parent interview (baseline; 30 mo)
Injuries requiring medical attention or limiting activityNational Health Interview Survey6-164 Parent interview (30 mo)
Language developmentMacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (short form) Completed at visit (24 mo)
Child behaviorChild Behavior Checklist (items comprising anxiety, somatic complaints, aggressive behavior, and behavior scales)§§ Parent interview (30 mo)

Selected Healthy Steps Evaluation Parent and Child Outcomes and Measures*

    • * For many of the outcomes shown, additional measures have been developed specifically for the Healthy Steps evaluation.

    • Mac Phee D. Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory.Unpublished questionnaire and manual. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina, Department of Psychology; 1981.

    • Fox RA. Parent Behavior Checklist Manual. Austin, TX: Pro Ed; 1994.

    • § Gribaud-Wallston J, Wandersman L (1978). Development and Utility of the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. Presented at American Psychological Association meeting, Toronto, 1978.

    • Gielen AC, Wilson MEH, Faden RR, Wissow L, Harvilchuck JD. In-home injury prevention practices for infants and toddlers: the role of parental beliefs, barriers and housing quality. Health Educ Q. 1995;22:85–95.

    • Young KT, Davis K, Schoen C. The Commonwealth Fund Survey of Parents With Young Children. New York, NY: The Commonwealth Fund; 1996.

    • # Holden GW, Zambarano RJ. Passing the rod: Similarities between parents and their young children in orientations toward physical punishment. In: IE Sigel, AV McGillicuddy-DeLisi, JJ Goodnow, eds.Parental Belief Systems: The Psychological Consequences for Children. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1992:143–172.

    • ** Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Measurement. 1977; 1:385–401.

    • F6-164 Massey JT, Moore TF, Parsons VL, Tadros W. Design and estimation for the National Health Interview Survey, 1985–1994. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat. 1989;2(110).

    • Fenson L, Dale PS, Reznick JS, Bates E, Thal DJ, Pethick SJ. Variability in early communicative development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. 1994;59.

    • §§ Achenbach TM. Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/2-3 and 1992 Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont Department of Psychiatry; 1992.