TABLE 5

Mean HbA1c at SEARCH Study Visit and Risk Ratio Estimates for Episodes of DKA, Hypoglycemia, Hospitalizations, and ED Visits in the Previous 6 Months, According to Level of Depressed Mood and Gender, for Participants With at Least 1-Year Duration of Diabetes (N = 2281)

MalesFemales
CrudeAdjustedaCrudeAdjusteda
EstimatePEstimatePEstimatePEstimateP
Mean HbA1c %b<.001<.001<.001<.05
    Moderately/severely9.449.688.949.04
    Mildly8.939.289.089.09
    Minimal (reference)8.458.928.548.68
No. of DKA episodescNSNSNSNS
    Moderately/severely1.961.841.512.36
    Mildly0.800.731.651.58
    Minimal (reference)1.001.001.001.00
No. of hypoglycemic episodescNSNSNSNS
    Moderately/severely2.232.461.632.63
    Mildly1.211.260.630.67
    Minimal (reference)1.001.001.001.00
No. of hospitalizationscNSNS<.05NS
    Moderately/severely2.852.402.251.04
    Mildly1.160.931.490.89
    Minimal (reference)1.001.001.001.00
No. of ED visitsc<.001<.05<.001<.05
    Moderately/severely2.511.832.401.60
    Mildly1.080.911.781.49
    Minimal (reference)1.001.001.001.00
  • Data are restricted to youth with diabetes for at least 1 year (N = 2281; mean age: 15.6 ± 3.2 years). Episodes of DKA and hypoglycemia, number of hospitalizations, and ED visits are for the previous 6 months. NS indicates not significant.

  • a Models are adjusted for age (continuous), race/ethnicity, parental education, insurance status, diabetes type, and duration of diabetes (continuous), and use of psychiatric medications.

  • b Analysis of variance; estimates reported are means.

  • c Poisson regression; estimates reported are ratios of mean number of events or episodes.