TABLE 3

Association Between Depressed Mood and Demographic Factors, Diabetes-Related Factors, and Acute Health Care Visits, by Gender

MalesFemales
Minimally (N = 1045)Mildly (N = 158)Moderately / Severely (N = 78)SignificancecMinimally (N = 1022)Mildly (N = 217)Moderately/ Severely (N = 152)Significancec
Age category, n (%)NS<0.01
    10–12 y299 (82.4)44 (12.1)20 (5.5)313 (79.9)51 (13.0)28 (7.1)
    13–15 y323 (80.8)53 (13.3)24 (6.0)324 (74.8)58 (13.4)51 (11.8)
    16–18 y267 (81.9)43 (13.2)16 (4.9)240 (68.2)66 (18.8)46 (13.1)
    ≥1 y9156 (81.3)18 (9.4)18 (9.4)145 (67.8)42 (19.6)27 (12.6)
Race/ethnicity, n (%)<.01<.001
    Non-Hispanic white762 (84.2)103 (11.4)40 (4.4)704 (79.3)108 (12.2)76 (8.6)
    Hispanic127 (73.4)30 (17.3)16 (9.3)125 (65.1)41 (21.4)26 (13.5)
    Black78 (76.5)13 (12.8)11 (10.8)103 (61.7)34 (20.4)30 (18.0)
    Other/unknown78 (77.2)12 (11.9)11 (10.9)90 (62.5)34 (23.6)20 (13.9)
Highest parental education, n (%)<.01<.001
    Less than high school graduate51 (77.3)11 (16.7)4 (6.1)48 (52.8)20 (22.0)23 (25.3)
    High school graduate or GED170 (74.9)38 (16.7)19 (8.4)185 (68.3)52 (19.2)34 (12.6)
    Some college326 (79.3)53 (12.9)32 (7.8)328 (70.2)81 (17.3)58 (12.4)
    Bachelor degree or more484 (86.4)53 (9.5)23 (4.1)455 (82.4)61 (11.1)36 (6.5)
Household income, n (%)<.001<.001
    <$25 000 US121 (77.6)24 (15.4)11 (7.1)156 (63.9)43 (17.6)45 (18.4)
    $25 000–49 000 US194 (74.1)44 (16.8)24 (9.2)197 (67.0)67 (22.8)30 (10.2)
    $50 000–74 000 US206 (82.4)28 (11.2)16 (6.4)203 (74.9)39 (14.4)29 (10.7)
    ≥$75 000 US410 (85.4)54 (11.3)16 (3.3)372 (84.4)42 (9.5)27 (6.1)
    Do not know/refused107 (85.6)7 (5.6)11 (8.8)94 (66.6)26 (18.4)21 (14.9)
Family composition, n (%)NS<.001
    2 parents656 (83.6)92 (11.7)37 (4.7)629 (78.8)102 (12.8)67 (8.4)
    1 parent336 (78.9)56 (13.2)34 (8.0)310 (67.8)83 (18.2)64 (14.0)
    Other/unknown53 (75.7)10 (14.3)7 (10.0)83 (61.0)32 (23.5)21 (15.4)
Health insurance, n (%)<.01<.001
    Private insurance844 (83.1)120 (11.8)52 (5.1)807 (76.9)143 (13.6)100 (9.5)
    Medicaid142 (79.8)22 (12.4)14 (17.9)173 (65.5)55 (20.8)36 (13.6)
    Other30 (68.2)8 (18.2)6 (13.6)19 (54.3)8 (22.9)8 (22.9)
    None20 (64.5)6 (19.4)5 (16.1)20 (57.1)10 (28.6)5 (14.3)
Overweight<.01<.001
    Yes158 (76.3)26 (12.6)23 (11.1)181 (64.2)54 (19.2)47 (16.7)
    No887 (82.6)132 (12.3)55 (5.1)841 (75.8)163 (14.7)105 (9.5)
Using psychiatric medications, n (%)<.001<.001
    Yes45 (62.5)15 (20.8)12 (16.7)33 (37.9)15 (17.2)39 (44.8)
    No976 (82.6)141 (11.9)65 (5.5)968 (76.5)191 (15.1)106 (8.4)
Diabetes type, n (%)<.001<.001
    Type 1937 (83.1)138 (12.2)53 (4.7)877 (77.1)159 (14.0)102 (9.0)
    Type 290 (67.7)19 (14.3)24 (18.1)139 (58.4)52 (21.9)47 (19.8)
Other/unknown/missing18 (90.0)1 (5.0)1 (5.0)6 (40.0)6 (40.0)3 (20.0)
Duration of diabetes, n (%)NSNS
    <6 mo70 (76.9)13 (14.3)8 (8.8)62 (72.1)16 (18.6)8 (9.3)
    6 to <12 mo88 (81.5)10 (9.3)10 (9.3)77 (72.6)17 (16.0)12 (11.3)
    1 to < 3 y273 (82.5)41 (3.2)17 (5.1)245 (72.9)54 (16.1)37 (11.0)
    3 to <6 y256 (78.8)49 (15.1)20 (6.2)255 (72.8)59 (16.9)36 (10.3)
    ≥6 y358 (84.0)45 (10.6)23 (5.4)383 (74.7)71 (13.8)59 (11.5)
HbA1c %, mean (± SD)8.28 (1.7)8.72 (2.1)8.98 (2.5)<.0018.40 (1.8)8.90 (2.2)8.73 (2.1)<.01
Comorbid conditionsa<.01<.001
    Yes, n (%)227 (77.5)35 (12.0)31 (10.6)179 (59.1)67 (22.1)57 (18.8)
    No, n (%)619 (83.3)90 (12.1)34 (4.6)634 (76.6)116 (14.0)78 (9.4)
DKA episodes, mean (± SD)b0.30 (2.0)0.25 (0.8)0.53 (1.4)NS0.33 (2.9)0.55 (3.0)0.52 (1.6)NS
Hypoglycemic episodes, mean (± SD)b0.27 (1.6)0.32 (1.5)0.53 (3.4)NS0.32 (2.3)0.22 (1.5)0.60 (2.8)NS
Hospitalizations, mean (± SD)b0.12 (0.4)0.13 (0.5)0.22 (0.4)NS0.19 (0.8)0.25 (0.9)0.39 (1.0)<.05
ED visits, mean (± SD)b0.27 (0.6)0.31 (0.7)0.53 (1.0)<.010.34 (0.9)0.60 (1.3)1.02 (3.5)<.001
  • GED indicates general educational development diploma; ANOVA, analysis of variance; NS, not significant.

  • a Comorbid conditions include kidney disease, celiac disease, hypertension, asthma, and polycystic ovarian syndrome.

  • b DKA and hypoglycemia episodes, hospitalizations, and ED visits are reported only for youth who had diabetes for at least 1 year (n = 2281; 1199 females and 1082 males).

  • c P values are based on χ2 tests for categorical variables and analyses of variance for continuous variables.