Table 2.

Estimated Effect of CHPlus on the Mean Number of Primary Care Visits per Year for Infants (n = 275) and for Young Children (n = 574) and on Specialty Utilization for Infants (n = 453) and Children (n = 1905). Primary Care Visits Were Obtained by Chart Review, Specialty Visits by Interview

Utilization MeasureAll Regions CombinedNew York CityNew York City Urban CountiesUpstate UrbanUpstate Rural
Without CHPlus*CHPlus EffectWithout CHPlus*CHPlus EffectWithout CHPlus*CHPlus EffectWithout CHPlus*CHPlus EffectWithout CHPlus*CHPlus Effect
Primary care visits
 Infants (0–.99 y)
  Preventive2.14+.541.56+.532.26+.302.53+.382.20+.95
  Acute3.48+1.803.44+1.523.74+2.67§3.43+2.53§3.32+.49
  All types7.22+3.006.00+3.468.18+3.067.40+4.31§7.30+1.14
 Children (1–3.99 y)
  Preventive.59+.38.53+.44§.62+.41.68+.35§.53+.30§
  Acute1.97+1.46,2-a1.64+2.372.50+1.752.09+.661.64+1.07
  All types3.42+2.34,2-a2.68+3.534.25+2.703.73+1.35§3.03+1.79
Number of specialists seen
 Infants (0–.99 y).143+.174.103+.240.176+.305§.157+.134.134+.018
 Children (1–11.99 y).172+.178b,c.125+.222.200+.174.186+.176.175+.140
  • Significant interactions by:

  • F2-a region;

  • F2-b previous insurance; and

  • F2-c insurance gap before CHPlus.

  • * Adjusted for region and CHPlus plan type (all children); age and pre-CHPlus insurance coverage (1–11.99 years).

  • Difference between the 1-year period before CHPlus enrollment and the 1-year period after CHPlus enrollment. Significant variations in CHPlus effect (interactions) are described in the text.

  • P < .05.

  • § P < .01.

  • P < .001.