Table 3.

Physiologic Outcomes of Breastfed as Compared With Bottle- and Cup-fed Infants for Individual Feeding Stages

Feeding Stage/OutcomeFirst Tercile of Feeding
Second Tercile of Feeding
Third Tercile of Feeding
Recovery
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
HR (beats/min)
 Breast123.1 (14.4)118.8 (12.7)119.9 (12.2)117.2 (13.2)
 Bottle136.6 (11.2)**139.0 (12.0)3-165140.7 (10.8)3-165133.6 (14.1)3-165
 Cup132.6 (14.7)133.4 (12.6)3-165132.8 (12.1)**129.5 (12.1)*
RR (breaths/min)
 Breast52.5 (5.9)50.3 (6.3)49.2 (7.3)49.0 (5.8)
 Bottle51.9 (5.5)54.1 (5.5)**53.1 (6.1)*51.7 (6.0)
 Cup53.5 (6.4)53.0 (6.5)*52.6 (6.6)*51.8 (6.8)*
O2 saturation (percent)
 Breast97.4 (1.8)97.8 (1.7)97.1 (1.6)98.8 (5.2)
 Bottle94.6 (3.3)**95.4 (4.1)**95.5 (5.3)96.2 (1.9)
 Cup94.8 (3.7)**95.6 (2.9)*95.7 (2.9)95.1 (8.0)*
  • * P ≤ .05;

  • ** P ≤ .01;

  • F3-165 P ≤ .001; referent to breastfed study group.