Table 2.

Differences in Overall Physiologic Outcomes in Breastfed, Bottle-fed, and Cup-fed Infants

Outcome(I) Treatment
Group
(J) Treatment
Group
Mean Difference
(I–J)
95% CI for
Difference
P
Value
HR (beats/min)BottleCup3.55−.857.95.11*
BreastBottle−11.81−15.95−7.67.000
BreastCup−6.50−10.62−2.38.002
RR (breaths/min)BottleCup.34−1.712.40.74*
BreastBottle−2.35−4.44−.26.028
BreastCup−2.72−4.78−.66.010
O2 saturation (percent)BottleCup.15−.911.22.78*
BreastBottle1.71.303.11.018
BreastCup1.43.052.82.043
  • * Analysis conducted with repeat measures ANOVA.

  • Because of significant differences in baseline measures (prefeeding values) between breastfed versus cup- and bottle-fed infants, analyses were conducted with repeat measures ANOVA with prefeeding values entered as a covariate.