TABLE 5

Studies of Screening Instruments for Children 2 to 3 Years Old

Authors (y)NInstrumentReference StandardSpeech and Language DomainsSubjectsSettingScreenerSensitivity, %Specificity, %Study Quality Rating
5 min to administer
    Burden et al11 (1996)2590Parent Language ChecklistClinical judgementExpressive and receptive languageAll children turning 36 mo; 52% male; 41% urbanHome (mailed)Parent8745Good
    Laing et al63 (2002)376Structured Screening TestReynell Developmental Language ScalesExpressive and receptive languageChildren from 2 low-SES counties in London; mean age: 30 moPhysician's officeHealth visitor66 (severe); 54 (needs therapy)89 (severe); 90 (needs therapy)Fair
Private practice population; 34–40 moPhysician's officeMedical practitioners100100Fair
    Levett and Muir64 (1983)140Levett-Muir Language Screening TestReynell Developmental Language Scales, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Language Assessment and Remediation ProcedureReceptive language, phonology, syntax
    Sturner53 (1993) Study 1279Fluharty Preschool Speech and Language Screening TestArizona Articulation Proficiency Scale Revised, Test of Language Development PrimaryExpressive and receptive language, articulation46% male; 74% white; 86% rural; 24–72 moPreschoolTeacher43 (speech and language); 74 (speech); 38 (language)82 (speech and language); 96 (speech); 85 (language)Fair
    Sturner et al53 (1993) Study 2421Fluharty Preschool Speech and Language Screening TestTest for Auditory Comprehension of Language Revised, Templin-Darley Test of ArticulationExpressive and receptive language, articulation52% male; 75% white; 24–72 moPreschoolTeacher31 (speech and language); 43 (speech); 17 (language)93 (speech and language); 93 (speech); 97 (language)Fair
10 min to administer
    Law67 (1994)1205Hackney Early Language Screening TestReynell Developmental Language ScalesExpressive languageChildren attending routine developmental checkups; mean age: 30 moHomeHealth visitor9869Good-Fair
    Blaxley65 (1983)90Fluharty Preschool Speech and Language Screening TestDevelopmental Sentence ScoringExpressive and receptive language, articulationChildren referred for speech and/or language assessment and intervention and controls; 24–72 moSpeech and hearing clinic in western OntarioClinician36 (10th percentile); 30 (25th percentile)95 (10th percentile); 100 (25th percentile)Fair
    Bliss and Allen66 (1984)602Screening Kit of Language DevelopmentSequenced Inventory of Communication DevelopmentExpressive and receptive languageFrom day care centers in Detroit, MI; 30–48 moSpeech and language hearing clinic, day-care center, physician's office, educational and health facilitiesParaprofessionals and speech and language pathologists100 (30–36 mo); 100 (37–42 mo); 100 (43–48 mo)98 (30–36 mo); 91 (37–42 mo); 93 (43–48 mo)Fair
    Dixon et al54 (1988)25Hackney Early Language Screening TestClinical judgementExpressive languagePilot study at 1 clinic setting in Hackney; mean age: 30 moPhysician's officeHealth visitor9594Poor
    Walker et al68 (1989)77Early Language Milestone ScaleSequenced Inventory of Communication DevelopmentExpressive and receptive language     All children attending a study clinic; mean age: 36 moClinicSpeech and language pathologist0 (0–12 mo); 100 (13–24 mo); 100 (25–36 mo)86 (0–12 mo); 60 (13–24 mo); 75 (25–36 mo)Poor