TABLE 3

Summary of Study Quality of Articles Included in This Systematic Review

StudyControl SelectionComparability of Cases and Controls at BaselineVerification of FracturesControl for the Potential Confounding Effects of Body SizeTemporality Ensured (ie, Bone Density Measured Before Fracture Occurred)Multiple Comparisons and Subgroup Analyses Carried out
Landin and Nilsson14 (1982)Neighborhood controlsUnknownUnknownAttemptedNoNo
Chan et al15 (1984)UnknownDifference in weight between cases and controlsRadiograph reviewNo difference found in heightNoNo
Cook et al16 (1987)UnknownGoodUnknownNo difference found in height or weightNoNo
Goulding et al17 (1998)Neighborhood controlsDifference in weight between cases and controlsRadiograph reviewNo difference found in heightNoYes
Skaggs and Loro18 (2001)Neighborhood controlsGoodUnknownAttemptedNoNo
Ma and Jones19 (2002)From previously recruited cohortsGoodRadiograph reviewAttemptedNoNo
Suuriniemi et al20 (2003)From previously recruited cohortsGoodRadiograph reviewAttemptedNoYes
Ma and Jones21 (2003)Neighborhood controlsGoodRadiograph reviewAttemptedNoYes
Schalamon et al22 (2004)Neighborhood controlsUnknownUnknownNo difference found in height or weightNoNo
Goulding et al23 (2004)From previously recruited cohortsGoodRadiograph reviewAttemptedNoNo