TABLE 2

Case-Control Studies That Reported Measures of Association Between Fractures and Bone Density in Children

StudyGeographical Area Covered; LatitudeAge, y; GenderCases (No. of Children With Fractures)ControlsExclusions for Cases and ControlsBone Density MeasureTime Between Fracture and Bone Density Measurement
Landin and Nilsson14 (1982)Malmo, Sweden; 59°N4–16; M and F90131 controls from same population as casesHand, finger, skull, tooth, and rib fractures, metabolic bone disease, malnutrition, growth impairmentDXA of radius40 d (±25)
Chan et al15 (1984)Salt Lake City, UT; 40°N2–12; M and F1717, unknown from where they were drawnExisting chronic illness, malnutrition, underlying bone abnormalitiesDXA nondominant or nonfractured radius16 mo
Cook et al16 (1987)Louisiana; 30°N3–14; M and F1717, unknown from where they were drawnMetabolic bone disease, malnutrition, growth impairment, fractures of fingers, skull, teeth, or ribsDXA lumbar spine, left femoral neckWithin 4 wk
Goulding et al17 (1998)Dunedin, New Zealand; 46°S3–15; F100100 controls (friends of cases with same age)NonwhiteDXA lumbar spine, left femur, total body, radiusWithin 6 wk
Skaggs and Loro18 (2001)Los Angeles, CA; 34°N6 to15; F5050 matched community controlsMedium/high-energy trauma fractures, chronic illness, ill for >2 wk in last 6 mo, previous hospitalization, medications, vitamins, calcium supplementsComputed tomography radiusWithin 1 mo
Ma and Jones19 (2002)Southern Tasmania; 42°S8; M and F32292 controlsNot at risk of sudden infant death syndromeDXA of total body, lumbar spine, and femurUnknown
Suuriniemi et al20 (2003)Jyvaskyla, Finland; 60°N11; F37212 controls from same population as casesHistory of serious medical conditions, medications known to affect bone, fracture <1 y ago, serious traumaDXA of total body, femur, lumbar spine, pQCT of left distal radius, and broadband attenuation left calcaneus by QUS>1 y
Ma and Jones21 (2003)Southern Tasmania; 42°S9–16; M and F321321 from same school class as a caseDiseases that may prevent them from completing the study, moved out of area, not enrolled in school, previous upper limb fractures since age of 9DXA total body, lumbar spine, and right femoral neckAverage: 6 wk; max: 3 mo
Schalamon et al22 (2004)Graz, Austria; 48°N9–12; M and F50154 recruited from a school within same periodHigh-impact trauma, illnesses except allergiesSpeed of sound of proximal phalanges of dominant hand measured by QUSWithin 12 h
Goulding et al23 (2004)Dunedin, New Zealand; 46°S0–13; M and F1634 controlsNo history of cow's milk avoidanceDXA total body, lumbar spine, and forearmUnknown