TABLE 3.

Outcomes of the Trial

MeasureControls (N = 207)Early Start (N = 184)PAssociation * (95% CI)Effect (d; 95% CI)
Child health
    Mean no. of GP visits (0–36 mo)20.723.4<.050.11 (0.01–0.21)0.24 (0.02–0.41)
    % Up to date with immunizations (0–36 mo)91.992.5.831.09 (0.51–2.32)0.02 (−0.19–0.22)
    % Up to date with well-child checks (0–36 mo)30.141.9<.051.70 (1.11–2.59)0.25 (0.06–0.46)
    % Attended hospital for accident/injury or accidental poisoning (0–36 mo)26.317.5<.050.59 (0.36–0.98)0.22 (0.02–0.41)
    % Enrolled with dental nurse/dentist at 36 mo62.872.3<.051.54 (1.01–2.37)0.20 (0.01–0.40)
Service utilization
    Mean duration of early childhood education, mo (0–36 mo)13.616.4<.050.11 (0.01–0.21)0.22 (0.02–0.42)
    Mean no. of community service contacts (0–36 mo)7.78.7<.010.16 (0.06–0.26)0.31 (0.13–0.51)
Maternal parenting attitudes
    Mean positive parenting attitudes (36 mo)9.8810.14<.010.13 (0.03–0.23)0.26 (0.06–0.47)
    Mean nonpunitive attitudes (36 mo)9.9010.12<.050.11 (0.01–0.21)0.22 (0.02–0.42)
    Mean parenting score (36 mo)9.8710.14<.010.13 (0.03–0.23)0.27 (0.07–0.47)
Child abuse and neglect
    % Parental report of severe physical assault (0–36 mo)11.74.4<.010.35 (0.15–0.80)0.26 (0.07–0.48)
    % In contact with agencies for child abuse or neglect (0–36 mo)21.319.6.390.91 (0.55–1.48)0.04 (−0.15–0.25)
Child behavioral adjustment
    Mean externalizing score (36 mo)10.099.90<.070.09 (−0.01–0.19)0.19 (−0.01–0.39)
    Mean internalizing score (36 mo)10.129.86<.010.13 (0.03–0.23)0.26 (0.06–0.47)
    Mean total behavior score (36 mo)10.119.87<.050.12 (0.02–0.22)0.24 (0.04–0.44)
  • CI indicates confidence interval; GP, general practitioner.

  • * Association between treatment group and outcomes is described by the odds ratio for dichotomous measures and the correlation ratio for continuous measures.

  • For ease of interpretation, all parenting and child behavior scores have been standardized to a mean of 10 and an SD of 1.