Table 2.

Referral Rates

Type of Referral RateGatekeeping Arrangement
(% of Office Visits Referred)
Gatekeeping Arrangement
(Adjusted Odds Ratios*)
YesNoYesNo
All referrals3.41 2.191.81 1.00
Excluding referrals made at parent request 2.93 2.011.75 1.00
Age (y)
 01.931.631.361.00
 1–42.69 1.971.62§ 1.00
 5–103.91 2.382.06 1.00
 11+5.76 3.052.03 1.00
Sex
 Male3.65 2.471.73 1.00
 Female3.21 1.931.98 1.00
Insurance financing
 Private3.16 1.851.86 1.00
 Medicaid5.39 3.731.76§ 1.00
  • * Regression models were adjusted for patient age, sex, principal diagnosis, insurance type, mean number of patients seen per practice-day (practice intensity), practice organization, and intraphysician clustering of observations by using the generalized estimating equation statistical model.

  • All referrals for which the physician reported that one of the reasons for making the referral was patient or parent request were removed from the analysis.

  • .01 ≤ P < .05;

  • § .001 ≤P < .01;

  • P < .001.