Table 1.

Study Populations

Gatekeeping ArrangementP
Yes (%)No (%)
Patients seen during office visits
 Sample size15 11711 987
 Age (y)
  020.922.5.001
  1–435.233.8
  5–1025.226.0
  11+18.717.7
 Sex
  Male53.052.5.362
  Female47.047.5
 Insurance financing
  Private88.781.7.001
  Medicaid11.318.3
Referred patients
 Sample size516263
 Age (y)
  011.816.7.093
  1–427.730.4
  5–1028.928.1
  11+31.624.7
 Sex
  Male56.258.6.530
  Female43.841.4
 Insurance financing
  Private82.268.8.001
  Medicaid17.831.2
 Maternal education
  <12th grade8.710.3.851
  High school graduate/GED18.919.2
  Some college39.940.9
  College graduate32.529.6
 Global rating of health: fair/poor6.44.4.305
 Health problem leading to referral
  Restricted child's/teen's activity49.650.2.885
  Caused a great deal of parental worry29.230.9.656
  Led to any child/teen discomfort71.967.6.280
 Number of previous visits with any physician for health problem leading to referral
   0, index visit only62.560.7.467
   116.514.0
   2+21.025.3