Table 1.

Study Populations

Gatekeeping ArrangementP
Yes (%)No (%)
Patients seen during office visits
 Sample size15 11711 987
 Age (y)
 Insurance financing
Referred patients
 Sample size516263
 Age (y)
 Insurance financing
 Maternal education
  <12th grade8.710.3.851
  High school graduate/GED18.919.2
  Some college39.940.9
  College graduate32.529.6
 Global rating of health: fair/poor6.44.4.305
 Health problem leading to referral
  Restricted child's/teen's activity49.650.2.885
  Caused a great deal of parental worry29.230.9.656
  Led to any child/teen discomfort71.967.6.280
 Number of previous visits with any physician for health problem leading to referral
   0, index visit only62.560.7.467