Risk Factor | Relative Risk | Prevalence, % | Sample Size^{*} | Author | Date | Source |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Gender | ||||||

Male (<1 y) | 0 | 0 | 193 | Roberts et al | 1983 | 5031 (13) |

Male (<1 y) | 0.3 | 2.5 | 945 | Hoberman et al | 1993 | 5062 (12) |

Male (3–8 mo) | 0.1 | 1^{†}
| 100 | Ginsburg and McCracken | 1982 | 1022 (4) |

Male (0–1 y) | 0.73 | 4.2^{†}
| 1177 | Jodal | 1987 | 3048 (66) |

Male (1–2 y) | 0.2 | 1.7^{†}
| 1177 | Jodal | 1987 | 3048 (66) |

Male (0–10 y) | 0.23 | 1.9^{†}
| 1177 | Jodal | 1987 | 3048 (66) |

Male (1–12 mo) | 2.8 | 7.4^{†}
| 112 | Elzouki et al | 1985 | 1028 (93) |

Male (1–5 y) | 0.55 | 3.5^{†}
| 112 | Elzouki et al | 1985 | 1028 (93) |

Weighted average, Male (<1 y) | 0.48 | 3.3 | ||||

Weighted average, Male (>1 y) | 0.23 | 1.9 | ||||

Female (<1 y) | — | 7.4 | 193 | Roberts et al | 1983 | 5031 (13) |

Female (<1 y) | 3.5 | 8.8 | 945 | Hoberman et al | 1993 | 5062 (12) |

Female (3–8 mo) | 10 | 9.1^{†}
| 100 | Ginsburg and McCracken | 1982 | 1022 (4) |

Female (0–1 y) | 1.4 | 5.8^{†}
| 1177 | Jodal | 1987 | 3048 (66) |

Female (1–2 y) | 5 | 8.3^{†}
| 1177 | Jodal | 1987 | 3048 (66) |

Female (0–10 y) | 4.3 | 8.1^{†}
| 1177 | Jodal | 1987 | 3048 (66) |

Female (1–12 mo) | 0.36 | 2.6^{†}
| 112 | Elzouki et al | 1980 | 1028 (93) |

Female (1–5 y) | 1.8 | 6.5^{†}
| 112 | Elzouki et al | 1980 | 1028 (93) |

Weighted average, Female (<1 y) | 2.6 | 6.5 | ||||

Weighted average, Female (>1 y) | 4.7 | 8.1 | ||||

Circumcision | 0.05 | 0.3^{‡}
| 2502 | Wiswell et al | 1985 | 5042 (26) |

0 | 0^{‡}
| 2019 | Wiswell and Roscelli | 1986 | 4021 (27) | |

0.1 | 0.6^{‡}
| 496 | Wiswell and Hachey | 1993 | no ^{#} (28) | |

0.07 | 0.4^{‡}
| 112 | Ginsburg and McCracken | 1982 | 1022 (4) | |

Weighted average | 0.04 | 0.21 |

↵* Different studies report different outcomes. Thus, the data cannot be pooled. The sample size refers to the number of subjects in the entire study. The weighted average is weighted by this number.

↵† These studies examined only children with UTI. In these studies, relative risk is estimated by OR as

*P*(male‖UTI)/*P*(female‖UTI). The prevalence is derived by assuming an overall prevalence of 5% for both genders and a 50% prevalence of males in the population, using the formula,*P*(UTI‖male) =*P*(male‖UTI) ·*P*(UTI)/*P*(male). A comparable formula is used for females.↵‡ Only the probability of circumcision given UTI [

*P*(circ‖UTI)] is reported. Relative risk is estimated by OR,*P*(circ‖UTI)/*P*(no circ‖UTI). Estimates of prevalence of UTI given circumcision [*P*(UTI‖circ)] are calculated by assuming the previous probability of UTI regardless of circumcision status [*P*(UTI)] is 5%, and the probability of circumcision (among males) is 70%. Prevalences are calculated using these estimates and Bayes's formula:*P*(UTI‖circ) =*P*(circ‖UTI) ·*P*(UTI)/*P*(circ).