APPENDIX 1

Group I: Child at risk Key Words
General terms
 Children (2 to 5 y)
 Infants (2 mo to 2 y)
 UTI/Urinary tract infection
 Fever
 Bacteriuria
Other terms
 Age
 Race
 Sex
 Socioeconomic status
 Circumcision
 Urban/rural
Group I specific terms
 Voiding
  Dysfunction
  Urgency
  Frequency
  Hesitancy
 Dysuria
 Examination
 Presentation
  Urinary incontinence
  Abdominal pain
  Failure to thrive
  (Foul-smelling urine)
 Cystitis
 Pyelonephritis
 Sepsis
 (Setting)
 Hospital
 Emergency department
 Pediatrician
 Urologist
 Family practitioner
Group II: Specimen—Key Words
General terms
 Children (2 to 5 y)
 Infants (2 mo to 2 y)
 UTI/urinary tract infection
 Fever
 Bacteriuria
Other terms
 Age
 Race
 Sex
 Socioeconomic status
 Circumcision
 Urban/rural
Group II specific terms
 Diagnosis
  Interpretation
  Results
 Presentation
 Testing
 Screening
 Urinalysis
 Specimen
  Criteria
  Collection
  Methods
 (Setting)
 Hospital
 Office
 Emergency department
 Pediatrician
 Urologist
 Family practitioner
Group III: Treatment of Acute UTI—Key Words
General terms
 Children (2 to 5 y)
 Infants (2 mo to 2 y)
 UTI/Urinary tract infection
 Fever
 Bacteriuria
Other terms
 Age
 Race
 Sex
 Socioeconomic status
 Circumcision
 Urban/rural
Group III specific terms
 Treatment
 Therapy
 Upper UTIDiagnosis
 Lower UTIDifferences/versus
 Hospitalization
 Oral
 Parenteral
 Antibiotic
 Alternatives
 (Setting)
 Hospital
 Office
 Emergency department
 Pediatrician
 Urologist
 Family practice
Group IV: Risk assessment—Key Words
General terms
 Children (2 to 5 y)
 Infants (2 mo to 2 y)
 UTI/Urinary tract infection
 Fever
 Bacteriuria
Other terms
 Age
 Race
 Sex
 Socioeconomic status
 Circumcision
 Urban/rural
Group IV specific terms
 Imaging
  Ultrasound
  Urography
  Cystography
   Radionuclide
   Renography
   Cystourethrography
   Radiography
  GU System
 Reflux
  VUR
 Obstruction
 Nephropathy
 Abnormalities
  Bladder
  Kidney
  Ureter
 (Setting)
 Hospital
 Office
 Emergency department
 Pediatrician
 Urologist
 Family practice

Terms Used in Literature Search