Table 7.

Distribution of Grades of Reflux Among Children With VUR

AuthorTitleVUR GradeDistribution, %Study Size (Children)
Hashemi119 Recurrent urinary tract infectionI59.3 41
II–IV40.7
Decter et al183 Vesicoureteral reflux in boysI10.6 86
II32.8
III23.4
IV17.8
V15.4
Farnsworth et al126 The detection of reflux nephropathy in infants by 99m I, II31.6224 kidneys
 technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid studiesIII47.4
IV, V21.1
Chao et al85 Vesicoureteric reflux and renal scarring in children: a local I13.6
 perspectiveII17.3
III23.5
IV38.3
V7.4
Holland et al184 Relation of urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux II17.0 65
 to scars: follow-up of thirty-eight patientsIII56.0
IV21.0
V6.0
Lanning et al139 Prediction of vesico-ureteral reflux children fromI13.7
 intravenous urography filmsII67.4
III14.7
IV1.1
V3.2
Cremin140 Observations on vesico-ureteric reflux and intrarenal I30.0117
 reflux: a review and survey materialII29.0
III41.0
Whyte et al141 A protocol for the investigation of infants with urinary I19.5460
 tract infectionII41.0
III34.5
IV5.0
Drew and Acton144 Radiological findings in newborn infants with urinary I7.3 64
 infectionII7.3
III51.2
IV34.1
Verber andSerial 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans afterI16.0 45
 Meller149  urinary infections presenting before the age of 5 yearsII37.0
III47.0
Mok and White152 The value of radiological investigation in paediatric I12.8109
 urinary tract infectionII-A26.2
II-B40.9
III11.4
IV8.7
Middleton and The lack of correlation between upper tract changes on I21.0391
 Nixon154  excretory urography and significant vesicoureteral reflux II38.0
III38.0
IV3.0
Kenda et al157 Renal ultrasound and excretory urography in infants and I5.0101
 young children with urinary tract infectionII76.3
III15.0
IV3.8
Total100.0
Johnson et al159 Identification of children requiring radiologic evaluation I16.7
 for urinary infectionII66.7
III16.7
Total100.0
Josifidis et al185 Inflammatory cell infiltrate in distal ureteral segments I11.7110
 from patients with refluxII36.6
III26.1
IV20.9
V4.7
McDonagh andUrinary tract infection in a peripheral paediatric unitI22.9334
 Bell165 II45.7
III31.4
Tsai166 Vesico-ureteral reflux in infants and childrenI53.7155
II34.1
III 9.3
IV 2.9
Bisset et al71 Urography and voiding cystourethrography: findings in I12.5523
 girls with urinary tract infectionII17.2
III57.8
IV 1.6
V10.9
AuthorTitleVUR GradeDistribution, %Study Size (Children)
Strife et al168 Nuclear cystography and renal sonography: findings in girlsI 3.2
 with urinary tract infectionII64.5
III29.0
IV 3.2
Total100.0
Aperia et al186 Correlation between kidney parenchymal area and renal I 5.044 kidneys
 function in vesicoureteral reflux of different degreesII11.0
III52.0
Principi et al170 Radiological investigations and first symptomatic urinary II 9.2(170)
 tract infection in infants and childrenIII81.6
IV 9.2
Marild et al172 Fever, bacteriuria and concomitant disease in children with I, II76.6112
 urinary tract infectionIII or
 more
23.4
Shanon et al187 Evaluation of renal scars by technetium-labeledI 9.0
 dimercaptosuccinic acid scan, intravenous urography, and II26.0
 ultrasonography: a comparative studyIII59.0
IV 6.0
Skoog et al188 A nonsurgical approach to the management of primary I 6.6457 ureters
 vesicoureteral refluxII54.1
III31.6
IV 5.7
V 1.9
Edwards et al189 Disappearance of vesicoureteric reflux during long-term I15.6150 ureters
 prophylaxis of urinary tract infection in childrenII19.5
III50.6
IV14.3
Bellinger andVesicoureteral reflux: a comparison of non-surgical andI 8.4604 units
 Duckett190  surgical managementII37.4
III24.8
IV24.3
V 4.8
Honkinen et al68 Ultrasonography as a screening procedure in children with I–II85.6 76
 urinary tract infectionIII–V14.1
Melis et al177 Involvement of the renal parenchyma in acute urinary tract I19.0196
 infection: the contribution of 99m Tc dimercaptosuccinic II18.6
 acid scanIII32.3
IV26.4
V 3.7
Rickwood et al179 Current imaging of childhood urinary infections: prospective I21.8200 (179)
 surveyII43.6
III16.4
IV16.4
V 1.8
Hoberman et al182 Oral vs. intravenous therapy for acute pyelonephritis in I29.9 78
 childrenII41.4
III23.0
IV 5.7
Wolfish et al78 Prevalence of hypertension in children with primary I12.3146
 vesicoureteral refluxII45.9
III31.5
IV 8.2
V 2.1
  • VUR indicates vesicoureteral reflux.