Table 4.

Respiratory Symptoms in the First 6 Months by Pacifier Use

NeverY, at 4 WkY, at 6 Mo
not 4 Wk
Y, at 4 Wk
and 6 Mo
P
Ever had cold/snuffles?
 % With cold (87.4%)87.487.386.687.6NS
 OR unadjusted1.001.00 (0.84, 1.18)0.94 (0.74, 1.18)1.02 (0.89, 1.16)NS
 OR adjusted1.001.08 (0.89, 1.31)0.95 (0.73, 1.23)1.09 (0.93, 1.28)NS
Ever had cough?
 % With cough (64.7%)62.266.165.566.0**
 OR unadjusted1.001.19 (1.06, 1.34)1.16 (0.98, 1.37)1.18 (1.08, 1.29)**
 OR adjusted1.001.22 (1.07, 1.41)1.18 (0.98, 1.43)1.16 (1.04, 1.29)**
Ever coughed for at least 2 d?
 % Coughed ≥2 d (44.0%)42.744.342.945.1NS
 OR unadjusted1.001.07 (0.95, 1.19)1.01 (0.86, 1.19)1.10 (1.01, 1.20)NS
 OR adjusted1.001.12 (0.99, 1.28)1.07 (0.89, 1.40)1.15 (1.03, 1.28)NS
Ever been breathless?
 % Breathless (6.0%)4.65.97.47.04-168
 OR unadjusted1.001.30 (1.01, 1.67)1.68 (1.22, 2.30)1.56 (1.29, 1.89)4-168
 OR adjusted1.001.12 (0.83, 1.49)1.23 (0.84, 1.81)1.23 (0.97, 1.55)NS
Ever had episodes of stopping breathing (6–8 mo)?
 % Apnea (2.2%)1.32.23.22.64-165
 OR unadjusted1.001.66 (1.09, 2.52)2.41 (1.46, 3.96)1.99 (1.43, 2.77)4-168
 OR adjusted1.001.63 (1.01, 2.64)1.13 (0.55, 2.31)1.60 (1.06, 2.41)NS
When asleep, seems to hold breath for several seconds
 % Holds breath often/sometimes (19.1%)19.219.618.218.8NS
 OR unadjusted1.001.05 (0.65, 1.70)0.60 (0.26, 1.41)1.07 (0.74, 1.54)NS
 OR adjusted1.001.08 (0.91, 1.28)0.29 (0.07, 1.28)1.03 (0.61, 1.73)NS
Breathes through mouth rather than through nose
 % Breathes through mouth all/much of time (23.3%)20.421.622.726.54-168
 OR unadjusted1.001.08 (0.91, 1.28)1.15 (0.91, 1.45)1.41 (1.25, 1.60)4-168
 OR adjusted1.000.95 (0.78, 1.15)1.00 (0.77, 1.31)1.03 (0.88, 1.20)NS
Snores for more than few minutes at time
 % Snores most nights/quite often (14.3%)11.214.113.017.04-168
 OR unadjusted1.001.30 (1.08, 1.56)1.18 (0.91, 1.53)1.63 (1.41, 1.87)4-168
 OR adjusted1.001.06 (0.85, 1.31)0.92 (0.68, 1.25)1.16 (0.97, 1.37)NS
Has regular sleeping?
 % Regular sleep (85.2%)84.585.182.886.3*
 OR unadjusted1.001.05 (0.89, 1.23)0.88 (0.71, 1.09)1.15 (1.02, 1.30)*
 OR adjusted1.000.98 (0.82, 1.18)0.86 (0.68, 1.10)1.01 (0.87, 1.17)NS
Ever had wheezing attacks with whistling on the chest?
 % Wheezed (19.6%)16.119.720.222.34-168
 OR unadjusted1.001.28 (1.11, 1.48)1.32 (1.08, 1.62)1.50 (1.34, 1.68)4-168
 OR adjusted1.001.18 (1.00, 1.40)1.18 (0.94, 1.50)1.23 (1.08, 1.42)*
  • Percentages denote the prevalence of the outcome within the pacifier history group.

    Adjusted OR allowed for all the variables in Table 2.

  • F4-168 P < .0001;

  • F4-165 P < .001;

  • ** P < .01;

  • * P < .05; NS,P ≥ .05.