Table 2.

Pacifier Use by Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Lifestyle Factors

Confounding Variable (%)Never
(34.9%)
Y, at 4 Wk Only
(16.2%)
Y, at 6 Mo Only
(6.6%)
Both
(42.3%)
χ2
Demographic characteristics
 Sex of child (n = 10 950)
  Boy (51.5%)32.117.26.544.2  39.7 
  Girl (48.5%)37.615.26.840.42-168
 Maternal age (n = 10 933)
  <25 (19.4%)19.815.46.957.8
  25–29 (39.7%)32.516.36.844.4 465.7 
  30+ (40.9%)44.016.56.333.22-168
 No. of older siblings (n = 10 412)
  None (45.3%)30.718.37.443.6
  One (35.5%)38.815.26.439.5  88.2 
  Two or more (19.2%)38.913.55.641.92-168
Socioeconomic factors
 Mother's education (n = 10 586)
  None or CSE (18.0%)23.014.67.055.4
  Vocational (9.4%)23.815.76.753.9
  O level (35.2%)30.816.26.346.7
  A level (23.6%)42.817.46.932.9 699.7 
  Degree (13.8%)55.816.37.120.92-168
 Housing tenure (n = 10 634)
  Owned (78.0%)37.516.76.639.2
  Public (council) rented (11.1%)20.414.46.259.1 202.7 
  Private rented (10.9%)31.514.37.347.02-168
 Financial difficulties (n = 10 153)
  None (38.0%)39.816.16.437.7
  Some (38.0%)33.219.86.743.2  76.3 
  Many (24.0%)30.815.27.146.92-168
 Overcrowding (n = 10 512)
  No (94.7%)35.416.36.741.6  20.1 
  Yes (5.3%)28.314.95.751.12-165
 Damp in home (n = 10 620)
  No (52.3%)33.216.86.743.4  15.8 
  Yes (47.7%)36.815.56.741.0**
Lifestyle factors
 Maternal smoking (8 wk; n = 10 533)
  No (81.8%)37.716.56.539.3 187.1 
  Yes (18.2%)23.35.06.755.02-168
 Passive smoking (n = 10 950)
  No (61.1%)40.417.06.436.2 244.8 
  Yes (38.8%)26.015.07.052.02-168
 Ever breastfed (n = 10 950)
  Never (20.9%)17.016.16.060.8
  Yes, stopped by 4 wk (23.2%)18.617.54.559.31372.2 
  Yes and still at 4 wk (55.9%)48.115.77.728.52-168
 Baby admitted to SCBU (n = 10 861)
  Yes (6.5%)31.117.115.036.9  87.5 
  No (93.5%)35.016.16.042.82-168
 Position child put to sleep (n = 10 826)
  Back (19.5%)36.817.14.741.4
  Side (68.3%)33.515.87.143.6
  Front (3.6%)44.818.45.431.5  49.29
  Varies (8.6%)35.716.36.141.82-168
  • F2-168 P < .0001;

  • F2-165 P < .001;

  • ** P < 0.01.