TABLE 1.

Characteristics of Case and Control Patients

CharacteristicCase Patients, n (%) (N = 97)Control Patients, n (%) (N = 475)
Age, y*
    <135 (36.1)173 (36.4)
    1–319 (19.6)95 (20.0)
    4–813 (13.4)65 (13.7)
    9–1317 (17.5)56 (11.8)
    >1313 (13.4)86 (18.1)
Female gender44 (45.4)219 (46.1)
Race and ethnicity
    White68 (70.1)305 (64.2)
    Hispanic11 (11.3)43 (9.1)
    Black5 (5.2)30 (6.3)
    Asian American and Pacific Islander3 (3.1)31 (6.5)
    American Indian and Alaskan Native3 (3.1)4 (0.8)
    Other5 (5.2)49 (10.3)
    Not identified2 (2.1)13 (2.7)
Admitting service*
    Medical74 (76.3)368 (77.5)
    Surgical23 (23.7)107 (22.5)
Admission to intensive care*
    Intensive care31 (32.0)140 (29.5)
    General medical/surgical66 (68.0)335 (70.5)
Insurance
    Employer based38 (39.2)230 (48.4)
    Medicaid59 (60.8)243 (51.2)
    Self-pay0 (0.0)2 (0.4)
Admit year*
    19985 (5.2)25 (5.3)
    199910 (10.3)50 (10.5)
    20007 (7.2)35 (7.4)
    200115 (15.5)71 (15.0)
    200225 (25.8)123 (25.9)
    200335 (36.1)171 (36.0)
  • Some of the columns may not add up to exactly 100% because of rounding.

  • * Matching variable.