TABLE 3.

Univariate and Adjusted Association Between Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Risk for Hyperkinetic Disorder in the Offspring

NnUnadjusted RR (95% CI)*Adjusted RR (95% CI)*
Nonsmoker25766911
Smoker13591012.9 (2.1–4.0)1.9 (1.3–2.8)
Children with parental psychiatric hospitalization excluded
    Nonsmoker19985711
    Smoker1013813.0 (2.1–4.2)2.2 (1.5–3.2)
  • Hyperkinetic offspring n = 170 (F90.0 [n = 102]; F90.1 [n = 33]; F90.8 [n = 2]; F90.9 [n = 33]) and 3765 control subjects. Results are also shown after excluding children with parental psychiatric hospitalization and outpatient contacts. Hyperkinetic offspring n = 138 (F90.0 [n = 81]; F90.1 [n = 28]; F90.8 [n = 1]; F90.9 [n = 28]) and 2873 control subjects.

  • * Cases and control subjects are matched for age, gender, and calendar time.

  • Adjusted for maternal, paternal, and siblings’ psychiatric hospitalizations and outpatient contacts, socioeconomic factors, and maternal age.

  • Adjusted for siblings’ psychiatric hospitalization and outpatient contacts, socioeconomic factors, and maternal age.