Table 2.

Characteristics of Black Mothers by Nativity, New York City, 1988–1994

SouthNortheastCaribbeanSouth
America
Africa
Total births17 968 (6.4%)155 101 (55.4%)76 426 (27.3%)11 006 (3.9%)9362 (3.3%)
Age (y) (%)*
 <205.921.06.49.23.0
 20–3473.772.677.078.183.7
 ≥3520.46.416.612.7113.3
Socioeconomic characteristic (%)
 ≥High school* 33.436.736.334.443.9
 Employment** 40.131.050.647.735.2
 Married** 31.922.847.554.860.3
 Medicaid** 56.362.647.344.747.4
 Primipara** 24.833.432.535.328.2
 Per capita income*
  Low69.169.846.351.657.2
  Middle23.923.544.241.831.1
Substance abuse (%)
 Cigarettes** 15.814.71.91.60.8
 Alcohol** 4.03.10.60.80.3
 Drugs** 7.97.30.60.50.2
Prenatal care utilization (%)*
 In 1st trimester22.419.824.725.722.3
 No prenatal care8.49.63.33.34.4
Chronic disease history (%)
 Diabetes2.81.84.24.53.3
 Hypertension3.82.53.12.43.0
 Renal disease2.52.61.31.12.9
  • Note: substance abuse indicates [cigarette, >1/2 pack per day; alcohol, >2] drug,

  • * P < 0.05;

  • ** P < .01.