Table 1.

Maternal Characteristics and Birth Outcome by Mother's Race, New York City, 1988–1994

Characteristic*Whites
(273 295)
Blacks
(279 826)
Age (y) (%)
 <203.414.5
 20–3476.974.7
 ≥3519.710.8
Socioeconomic characteristic (%)
 Education (≥high school)58.335.3
 Employment48.936.8
 Married86.933.1
 Medicaid13.954.9
 Per capita income in 1989
  Low (<$10 913.7)16.061.7
  Middle ($10 913.7–15 785.6)31.530.5
  High (>$15 785.6)52.57.9
Substance abuse (%)
 Cigarettes (>½ pack/d)6.510.2
 Alcohol (>2 drinks/wk)1.12.3
 Drugs (heroin, cocaine use)0.95.0
Prenatal care utilization (%)
 In 1st trimester51.221.7
 No prenatal care1.97.3
Chronic disease history (%)
 Diabetes2.42.7
 Hypertension1.52.8
 Renal disease2.02.2
Birth outcomes
 Birth weight (g)3383.93133.3
 Low birth weight (<2500 g) (%)4.813.1
 Very low birth weight (<1500 g) (%)0.82.9
 Preterm birth (<37 wk) (%)7.316.2
  • * Differences between race for all characteristics were highly significant (P < .001).