Table 1.

Univariate Analysis of Maternal, Infant, and Pregnancy Characteristics of GE Admissions and Controls*

Cases (n = 1606)Controls (n = 8084)OR95% CI
N%N%
Infant characteristics
Birth weight (g)
 <1500311.9700.92.25(1.47,3.43)
 1500–24991247.73704.61.70(1.38,2.10)
 2500–4000127879.8648280.21.00(Reference)
 >400016810.5115014.20.74(0.62,0.88)
Season of birth
 January–March41425.8190523.61.00(Reference)
 April–June47229.4217726.90.99(0.86,1.15)
 July–September39324.5212926.30.85(0.73,0.99)
 October–December32720.4187323.20.80(0.69,0.94)
Male gender93057.9409150.61.34(1.21,1.50)
Twin or triplet342.12042.50.84(0.58,1.20)
Necrotizing enterocolitis70.470.15.05(1.85,13.8)
Any GI anomaly130.890.17.32(3.20,16.8)
Maternal characteristics
Maternal age (y)
 <2026416.487010.81.57(1.35,1.82)
 20–34123476.9636878.81.00(Reference)
 ≥351076.784010.40.66(0.53,0.81)
Maternal race
 White130282.9646681.91.00(Reference)
 Black654.13083.91.05(0.80,1.38)
 Native American483.11712.21.39(1.01,1.93)
 Asian432.74065.10.53(0.38,0.73)
 Hispanic1137.25406.81.04(0.84,1.28)
Maternal smoking40925.4149518.51.53(1.34,1.73)
Unmarried mother54634.0187723.21.71(1.52,1.91)
Insurance
 Medicaid58236.2201324.91.56(1.32,1.78)
 HMO1449.082410.20.95(0.78,1.15)
 Commercial55134.3298236.91.00(Reference)
 Other32920.5226528.00.79(0.68,0.91)
Parity
 066842.3329941.81.01(0.89,1.16)
 150331.9260232.91.02(0.90,1.16)
 2+40825.8200225.31.00(Reference)
  • * Missing values excluded.