Table 1.

Age-Appropriate Interventions*

CategoryInfancy/Early Childhood
(0–2 Years)
Preschool
(3–5 Years)
School Age
(6–12 Years)
Early Adolescence
(13–16 Years)
Late Adolescence
(16 Years and Older)
Early nurturingPregnancy planned?
Assess support system
Assess bonding and attachment
Parent education:
 • bonding and attachment
 • reading to child
Assess child care arrangements
Assess sibling issues
Ability to cope with stress
Assess support system
Assess bonding and attachment
Parent education:
 • reading to child
 • teaching social skills
 •  knowing normal age-appropriate behavior
 •  modeling age-appropriate behavior
 •  spending time with children
Assess ability to cope with stress
Assess support system
Parent education: (same as preschool plus):
 • promote:
  – communication skills
  – empathy skills
  – anger-management skills
  – problem-solving skills
  – opportunities for positive activities (eg, sports)
Continued parental involvement
Parent education (same as school age)
Continued parental involvement
Foster safe separation
Support growth and development:
 • education
 • recreation
Educate about:
 • parenting
 • bonding and attachment
Limit settingPromote parenting skills that  emphasize positive reinforcement
Avoid corporal punishment
Promote age-appropriate disciplinary
 practices, including praise for
 positive behavior
Promote appropriate parenting skills
Avoid corporal punishment
Consistency in discipline
Appropriate time-outs
Develop family rules
Praise for positive behavior
Promote appropriate parenting skills
Avoid corporal punishment
Consistency in discipline
Appropriate time-outs
Expand family rules
Include responsibility
 • school
 • chores
Promote appropriate parenting skills
Avoid corporal punishment
Consistency in discipline
Appropriate restrictions
 • driving
 • drugs
 • curfews
Establish boundaries for dating and
  relationship
Establish conflict resolution techniques
  with friends and peers
Same as for early adolescence
Safety and screeningAssess family:
 • child care
 • parental stress
 •  treatment of mental illness or drug abuse
 • support system
 • gang involvement

Assess disciplinary attitudes and
  practices
Assess for domestic violence
Assess conflict resolution at home
Assess for guns in the home
Assess family:
 • child care
 • parental stress
 •  treatment of mental illness or drug abuse
 •  support system



Assess disciplinary attitudes and   practices
Assess for domestic violence
Assess conflict resolution at home
Assess for guns in the home
Assess exposure to violence:
 • media
 • community
 • school
Assess family:
 • child care
 • parental stress
 •  treatment of mental illness or drug abuse
 •  support system (plus inquire about situations that threaten the child; assess whether the child is victimized)
Assess disciplinary attitudes and
  practices
Assess for domestic violence
Assess conflict resolution at home
Assess for guns in the home
Assess for gang involvement
Assess exposure to violence:
 • media
 • community
 • school
Assess for substance abuse
Assess family:
 • child care
 • parental stress
 •  treatment of mental illness or drug abuse
 •  support system


Assess disciplinary attitudes and   practices
Assess for domestic violence
Assess conflict resolution at home
Assess for guns in the home
Assess for gang involvement
Assess exposure to violence:
 • media
 • community
 • school
Assess victimization risk factors
Assess for substance abuse
Assess family:
 • child care
 • parental stress
 •  treatment of mental illness or drug abuse
 • support system


Assess disciplinary attitudes and   practices
Assess for domestic violence
Assess conflict resolution at home
Assess for guns in the home
Assess for gang involvement
Assess exposure to violence:
 • media
 • community
 • school
Assess victimization risk factors
  (Use HEADS to further
  access risk factors)
Assess for substance abuse
Treatment and referralMake referrals for problems identified.
Refer to:
 • parenting programs
 • services for domestic violence
 • drug treatment program
 • mental illness treatment
Provide counseling on the dangers of
  guns in the home
Make referrals for problems identified.
Refer to counseling if the child:
 • witnesses violence
 • is excessively aggressive
 • has been victimized
Provide counseling on the dangers of
  guns in the home
Case management for high-risk youth
Make referrals for problems identified.
Refer to counseling if the child:
 • witnesses violence
 • is excessively aggressive
 • has been victimized
Provide counseling on the dangers of
  guns in the home
Case management for high-risk youth
Make referrals for problems identified.
Refer to counseling if the child:
 • witnesses violence
 • is excessively aggressive
 • has been victimized
Provide counseling on the dangers of
  guns in the home
Case management for high-risk youth
Make referrals for problems identified.
Refer to counseling if the child:
 • witnesses violence
 • is excessively aggressive
 • has been victimized
Provide counseling on the
  dangers of guns in the home
Case management for high-risk youth